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See also: Presidents of the United States (table)Presidents of the United States
President Political Party Dates in Office Vice President(s)
George Washington   1789–97 John Adams
John Adams Federalist 1797–1801 Thomas Jefferson
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in modern republics, the chief executive and, therefore, the highest officer in a government. Many nations of the world, including the United States, France, Germany, India, and the majority of Latin American nations, have a president as the official head of state. However, the actual power of the presidency varies considerably from country to country. In Germany the presidential power is relatively weak. True executive power rests with the chancellor, and all acts of the president must have his approval or the approval of one of his ministers. The presidential power in India is similarly subordinated to a cabinet of ministers and restricted primarily to ceremonial functions. By contrast, France (under the Fifth Republic), the United States, and some Latin American countries have given the office of the president considerable authority. In Latin America heads of state have not infrequently assumed dictatorial powers, while retaining the title president. The power of the French president is such that he may dissolve parliament at any time, although not more than once a year, and may veto parliamentary bills. He is commander in chief of the armed forces and possesses extraordinary emergency powers. In the United States, Article II of the Constitution provides for the office of the presidency, which is held for four-year terms and filled by election through the electoral collegeelectoral college,
in U.S. government, the body of electors that chooses the president and vice president. The Constitution, in Article 2, Section 1, provides: "Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the
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. The president is given full responsibility for the execution of the laws and is therefore the head of all executive agencies. With the consent of Congress he appoints cabinet members and any other executive officials he sees fit. As commander in chief of armed forces the president has control over the military, although Congress tried to limit his war-making power with the War Powers Act of 1973. He is also responsible for the conduct of foreign affairs, although his treaties and appointments must be approved by the Senate and his expenditures by the House of Representatives. To be eligible for the presidency one must be a native-born citizen, over 35 years old, and at least 14 years resident in the United States. The Twenty-second Amendment (1951) limits a president to two four-year terms. For a list of U.S. presidents, see Presidents of the United StatesPresidents of the United States
President Political Party Dates in Office Vice President(s)
George Washington   1789–97 John Adams
John Adams Federalist 1797–1801 Thomas Jefferson
..... Click the link for more information.
, table.


See M. Cunliffe, American Presidents and the Presidency (1972); L. Fisher, President and Congress (1972); F. I. Greenstein, Leadership in the Modern Presidency (1988); L. Fisher, Presidential War Power (1995).



(1) In many public, scholarly, and scientific establishments and in many organizations and the like, including international ones, the elected head—for example, the president of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the president of the International Council of Scientific Unions, the president of the International Academy of Astronautics, or the president of the Soviet-French Friendship Society.

(2) The head of state in countries with a republican form of government. In parliamentary republics, including Italy, India, the Federal Republic of Germany, Turkey, and Lebanon, the president is elected for a constitutionally defined term, either by the parliament or by a special collegium based in the parliament. In presidential republics the president is elected outside of parliament, either by direct elections, as in France, Panama, Paraguay, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Bolivia, or by indirect elections, as in the United States and Argentina.

In presidential republics the president has broad, real powers, since he combines the functions of head of state and head of government. The constitutions of parliamentary republics formally assign broad powers to the president, but in fact these powers are exercised by the prime minister. This arrangement is sometimes further strengthened by the institution of countersignature. In the socialist states of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, and the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea, the head of state is also a president, elected by the highest representative bodies. The president of the Republic of Cuba is elected by the Council of Ministers.

What does it mean when you dream about a president?

Dreaming about the chief of the company or the country suggests concerns about the status and security of one’s job or perhaps one’s opinion about the country’s leader.


1. the chief executive or head of state of a republic, esp of the US
2. (in the US) the chief executive officer of a company, corporation, etc.
3. the chief executive officer of certain establishments of higher education
References in periodicals archive ?
Within a few years of taking over presidentship of Congress, political cards deftly played by Sonia helped Congress assume power in 2004 and stay at the helm for around a decade before it faced defeat in recent parliamentary polls.
Congress gained an impressive victory with two-third majority under his presidentship wining 67 seats with 42.
M Narayana Rao, CMD, MIDHANI, have ably steered the Institute in their respective years of Presidentship.
After keeping silent all this while, Congress party President Sonia Gandhi revealed her choices for Presidentship on Wednesday, but sadly, Trinamool Congress supremo and West Bengal chief minister Mamata Banerjee rejected her choices.
NNA - 2/6/2011 - The 15th session of Arab Communications and Information Council of Ministers was inaugurated on Thursday at Habtoor Grand Hotel, Sin-el-Fil, upon the invitation of the Arab League, whereby the president of the 14th session, Yemeni Telecommunications Minister Kamal Hussein Al-Jabri, handed his Lebanese counterpart, Minister Charbel Nahhas, the presidentship of the current session for Lebanon is hosting this event.
Authors acknowledge the financial support by the Research Council of the Republic Presidentship.
A World Bank report, prepared in April but not released on Bush Administration's pressure because Robert Zoellick, Bush's man in the seat of presidentship, didn't want so, says that bio-fuel cultivation, especially in the US and Europe is directly responsible for the current explosion in food prices worldwide.
His first appearance on a political platform was under the presidentship of Dadabhoy Naoroji.
Subramaniam, former Governor of Maharashtra, set up a committee some time back under the presidentship of H.
Group Chairman Iftikhar Ali Malik thanked the Sargodha Chamber for reposing full confidence in the group leadership saying the best candidate has been nominated for presidentship in democratic manners through consensus.
Singh also said that Priyanka Gandhi should enter active politics and work together with Rahul Gandhi as a team under the Presidentship of Sonia.
He also called for meeting of IndoPak Chamber of Commerce and Industry here so that the presidentship be handed over to India after the executive as required by the constitution of the chamber.