Vasoconstrictor

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vasoconstrictor

[¦vā·zō·kən′strik·tər]
(physiology)
A nerve or an agent that causes blood vessel constriction.

Vasoconstrictor

 

one of a group of pharmacological agents that cause the constriction of the smooth muscles of blood vessels, which results in a narrowing of vascular lumens and an increase in arterial pressure and resistance to blood flow.

A distinction is made between vasoconstrictors with central action and those with peripheral action. Vasoconstrictors with central action stimulate the centers of the nervous regulation of vascular tone. The principal representatives of these neural stimulants are caffeine, strychnine, korazole, cordiamin, and camphor. Vasoconstrictors with peripheral action primarily include substances that excite the adrenergic receptors of blood vessels; these substances include epinephrine, norepinephrine, Mezaton (Adrianol), and ephedrine. Myotropic agents, for example, vasopressin and angiotensin, constitute a special group of vasoconstrictors with peripheral action. Astringents also have a local vasoconstrictive effect.

Vasoconstrictors are used to treat collapse; locally, they are used to halt bleeding and, in laryngological practice, to diminish inflammatory phenomena.

REFERENCE

Anichkov, S. V. Izbiratel’noe deistvie mediatornykh sredstv. Leningrad, 1974.
References in periodicals archive ?
When prescribing a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), ensure that your patient isn't taking other medications that could cause an interaction that results in serotonin syndrome or pressor effects.
Some human studies have shown that pressor responses to mental stress were enhanced in the post-menopausal women as compared to the pre-menopausal women.
Cold pressor In this task, participants were invited to submerge their right arm up to their elbow in a plastic container with ice water at 4 degrees Celsius.
The protocol for the Cold Pressor Test (CPT) was adapted from a previous study (16) in which the subjects place their right hand in the water (4 [degrees]C), up to the wrist for 1 min (3,39).
The pressor response is transient occurring 30 seconds of intubation and lasting for less than 5-10 minutes as by Abou-Madi et al11.
Jones, "Kainic acid lesions of the median preoptic nucleus: effects on angiotensin II induced drinking and pressor responses in the conscious rat," Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol.
The objective of this case study was to investigate the acute pressor response in an individual with 67 years, male, hypertensive, obese, and diabetic with coronary artery disease (CAD) in treatment submitted to two different types of aerobic exercise: continuous aerobic exercise (CAE) and aerobic interval exercise (AIE).
Because of the way the experiment was set up (with the cold pressor situated to the left of the participant), only right-handed participants were asked to participate in the experiment.
Although she showed some initial improvement with each debridement she remained persistently pressor dependent and febrile; also her last debridement didn't show any new necrosis (Figure 1), therefore, intravenous steroids were added with a temporary improvement in her vital signs.
10) GABA injection into the VTA attenuated pressor response to administration of angiotensin II into lateral cerebral ventricle.
To ameliorate this pressor response, various drugs have been tried including morphine5, remifentanil6, alfentanil7, sufentanil8, fentan- yl9, tramadol10, dexmedetomedinine11, sufentanil12, nalbuphine13,14, esmolol15, clonidine16 and lignocaine17.
Cold Pressor Test (CPT): The right hand of the subject was immersed up to the wrist in cold water at a temperature of 4[degrees]C for 1 minute.