data

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data

[′dad·ə, ′dād·ə, or ′däd·ə]
(computer science)
General term for numbers, letters, symbols, and analog quantities that serve as input for computer processing.
Any representations of characters or analog quantities to which meaning, if not information, may be assigned.
(science and technology)
Numerical or qualitative values derived from scientific experiments.

data

(data, data processing, jargon)
/day't*/ (Or "raw data") Numbers, characters, images, or other method of recording, in a form which can be assessed by a human or (especially) input into a computer, stored and processed there, or transmitted on some digital channel. Computers nearly always represent data in binary.

Data on its own has no meaning, only when interpreted by some kind of data processing system does it take on meaning and become information.

For example, the binary data 01110101 might represent the integer 117 or the ASCII lower case U character or the blue component of a pixel in some video. Which of these it represents is determined by the way it is processed (added, printed, displayed, etc.). Even these numbers, characters or pixels however are still not really information until their context is known, e.g. my bank balance is ?117, there are two Us in "vacuum", you have blue eyes.

data

(1) Technically, raw facts and figures, such as orders and payments, which are processed into information, such as balance due and quantity on hand. However, in common usage, the terms "data" and "information" are used synonymously. In addition, the term data is really the plural of "datum," which is one item of data. But datum is rarely used, and data is used as both singular and plural in practice.

The amount of data versus information kept in the computer is a tradeoff. Data can be processed into different forms of information, but it takes time to sort and sum transactions. Up-to-date information can provide instant answers.

A common misconception is that software is also data. Software is executed, or run, by the computer. Data are "processed." Thus, software causes the computer to process data.

(2) Any form of information whether on paper or in electronic form. Data may refer to any electronic file no matter what the format: database data, text, images, audio and video. Everything read and written by the computer can be considered data except for instructions in a program that are executed (software).

(3) May refer only to data stored in a database in contrast with text in a word processing document.
References in periodicals archive ?
Out of all the participants, all except 1 viewed the tool as a valid quality appraisal checklist for prevalence data (Table 4).
Some limited, sporadic HIV prevalence data were available, but such data become obsolete rapidly.
Prevalence Data and Statistical Discrimination in the Diagnosis of Coronary Heart Disease.
9,10) Applying a mathematical approach, we have derived HIV incidence estimates from prevalence in young people aged 15-20 years (males and females combined) using prevalence data by single year of age and assuming that HIV prevalence differences between the age strata represent incident HIV infections.
The CDC reported findings from the first and largest summary of prevalence data from multiple US communities participating in an ASD surveillance project in 2000 and 2002.
Obtaining both incidence and prevalence data is important for determining services to provide to victims of crimes.
Before the meeting, we provided panelists with summaries of our literature review, selected prevalence data, and sample Project ALERT materials.
Pearce for providing asthma prevalence data, and to the National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health review group for their very helpful comments: C.
The chapter also presents prevalence data in several subgroups such as adolescents, adult females, adult males, and elite athletes.
Little prevalence data exist in nonacademic settings to help define a population of salvage patients.
Four publications reported prevalence data on ADHD, (3-6) and one study gave prevalence data on asthma.
The HIV prevalence data on young Thai men is provided to public health policy makers on a regular basis.