profession

(redirected from professionalism)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Wikipedia.
Related to professionalism: medical professionalism

profession

a. a declaration of faith in a religion, esp as made on entering the Church of that religion or an order belonging to it
b. the faith or the religion that is the subject of such a declaration

profession

any MIDDLE-CLASS occupational group, characterized by claims to a high level of technical and intellectual expertise, autonomy in recruitment and discipline, and a commitment to public service. The ‘traditional’ professions are Law, Medicine, the Church and the Armed Forces, but both the term and its application are still debated. Among the reasons for this are the rise of new areas of technical knowledge and specialization and the everyday use of the term to refer to any and all occupations, or to distinguish between individuals who have exactly the same expertise by some nontechnical standard (e.g. money, social class). In the sociological literature, the debates have tended to concern problems of definition and the most significant features of professions.

Until the 1970s, there was a tendency in sociological work to discuss professions in their own terms and thus to reflect a functionalist ideology of expert public service as the main criterion for professional status. An early contribution (Flexner, 1915) exemplifies this. Flexner emphasized the intellectual, non-manual character of professions which necessitated long, specialist training in knowledge and techniques, their strong internal organization to deal with communication and discipline and their practical orientation, which was seen as altruistic – motivated by public service rather than personal profit. Most sociological work until recently echoed these themes, emphasizing the high status which followed from these characteristics. Later functionalists continued to debate the nature of professions, emphasizing different elements but broadly agreeing on the essential points. Talcott PARSONS (1964a) took the argument further. He started with the familiar features of esoteric knowledge and altruism but added that by virtue of expertise and knowledge, the professional has authority over the lay person and that the characteristics of professionalism were a distinct and increasingly important feature of modern institutions. The implication that professionalization was occurring on an important scale has been a theme in much of the work on professions but has not always been developed in the same terms as Parsons or other functionalists. Whereas functionalists tended to emphasize the value to society, the high prestige and selflessness of professions, other approaches have emphasized power and self-interest. One might say that where the view from the professions emphasized the advantages of professionalism to the community, later critical approaches stressed the advantages to the professionals themselves. One of the earliest of these analyses was by Hughes (1952) who argued that professions did not simply operate to the benefit of clients, their organization and practices also protected and benefited the practitioners. In particular, the claim to authoritative knowledge means that only the professionals can judge whether work has been done properly and the professional organization can serve to defend the practitioner rather than the client. This critical view has been typical of more recent approaches. Johnson (1972), developed the argument on the relationship between client and practitioner. emphasizing the power which professionals have to define the needs and treatment of their clients and to resolve any disputes in their own favour. Parry and Parry (1976) studied the medical profession

and argued that the ‘producer-consumer’ relationship is a less important consideration than the wish to establish a monopoly of practice – to get rid of rival medical approaches. The claim to unique competence, legally supported, is the basic strategy of professionalization. Self-regulation and control of recruitment are essential parts of the process. The advantages of professional (monopoly) status are to guarantee high material rewards, exclude outside judgement of performance and give guaranteed security of tenure to those allowed to practise.

This argument sees professionalization as a self-interested strategy and, in that sense, breaks down many of the distinctions which were formerly made between middle-class and working-class occupations. Skilled manual workers, for example, also have attempted to control recruitment by apprenticeships and to protect members’ security by trade unionism and ‘restrictive’ job-definitions whereby permissibility to do particular jobs was strictly limited to a craft member. Manual workers, due to factors such as technological change and market situation in periods of high unemployment, have been less successful than professions in maintaining their monopoly privileges, but there are signs that the traditional professions are under pressure in their claims to monopoly and autonomy. The increasing popularity and success of alternative medicine, for example, and proposed changes in the legal profession, including the weakening of solicitors’ effective monopoly on conveyancing and barristers’ monopoly on higher court representation, are cases in point. These changes, though, have not diminished the popularity of professionalization as a strategy of SOCIAL MOBILITY, because material and prestige rewards are still apparent.

References in periodicals archive ?
In: Stern DT (editor) Measuring medical professionalism.
1999) sought the opinions of Canadian students and clinicians in developing a definition of professionalism prior to the implementation of a new master's level curriculum.
Keywords: Professionalism, Physician-patient relationship, Professional development, Postgraduate training, Curriculum development, OSCE, Pakistan, Developing countries.
At the "Parent Representation in Dependency Court" seminar, Neymotin made the case for Professionalism Standards by explaining how detrimental a lack of those standards are to a justice system.
Jafary in his speech said that professionalism embodied the relationship between medicine and society as it formed the basis of patient-physician trust.
Conclusion: The current level of professionalism among medical students is sub-optimal.
Director of policy and strategy at the College, Josephine Mullin, said: "This has been an important project as professionalism is crucial to good patient care.
As Waisbord makes perfectly clear, however, neither version of professionalism emerged suddenly and clearly from the context of partisan politics or questions of government control and market influence.
One of the greatest workplace barriers to professionalism is the common employee performance evaluation that relegates supervisors and employees to a parent-child relationship.
Methods: Respondents from the two medical schools in Saudi Arabia, recommended sanctions for the first time, absolute lapses in academic professionalism were determined by using the "Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory 1: Academic Integrity".
Professionalism is characterized by evidence-based decision making by members of an occupation who share the same values and similar education.
Professionalism Across Occupational Therapy Practice

Full browser ?