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However, a recent international consensus panel (39) on prognostic markers for bladder cancer concluded that, although certain markers, such as p53, appear promising in predicting the progression of bladder cancer, the data were still heterogeneous.
13] Currently, pre-treatment PSA, Gleason score, stage and SM status are accepted and used prognostic markers.
Expression of E-cadherin and [alpha]-, [beta]-, [gamma]-catenins in patients with bladder cancer: identification of gamma-catenin as a new prognostic marker of neoplastic progression in T1 superficial urothelial tumors.
An ideal prognostic marker would identify patients at a stage where preventive or therapeutic measures might influence the course of the disease.
For example, in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, one of the most common lymphoma subtypes, immunohistochemical surrogate prognostic marker studies are refined and used in combination with the clinical international prognostic indices to help predict how patients will respond to chemotherapy.
Thus, the concentrations of the individual cleaved uPAR forms could be indicators of the activity of the plasminogen activation system, and the cleavage products may be stronger prognostic markers than the total amount of the uPAR forms.
We should think of it in terms of being a major prognostic marker.
More studies need to be done, but this could provide an important prognostic marker to determine which patients need to be treated more aggressively or watched more closely.
Now that we see palladin is expressed mostly in invasive cells, it raises the question as to whether it might be useful as a prognostic marker.
FLT3 is a commonly mutated gene found in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and its activating mutations have been proven to be a negative prognostic marker for clinical outcome suggesting a possible future role for treatment of AML.
Methylation of serum DNA is an independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer.