progressive education

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progressive education,

movement in American education. Confined to a period between the late 19th and mid-20th cent., the term "progressive education" is generally used to refer only to those educational programs that grew out of the American reform effort known as the progressive movement. The sources of the movement, however, partly lie in the pedagogy of Jean Jacques Rousseau, Johann Pestalozzi, and Friedrich Froebel.

Progressive education was a pluralistic phenomenon, embracing industrial training, agricultural education, and social education as well as the new techniques of instruction advanced by educational theorists. Postulates of the movement were that children learn best in those experiences in which they have a vital interest and that modes of behavior are most easily learned by actual performance. The progressives insisted, therefore, that education must be a continuous reconstruction of living experience based on activity directed by the child. The recognition of individual differences was also considered crucial. Progressive education opposed formalized authoritarian procedure and fostered reorganization of classroom practice and curriculum as well as new attitudes toward individual students.

Various Progressive Plans

John DeweyDewey, John,
1859–1952, American philosopher and educator, b. Burlington, Vt., grad. Univ. of Vermont, 1879, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins, 1884. He taught at the universities of Minnesota (1888–89), Michigan (1884–88, 1889–94), and Chicago (1894–1904) and at
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, an early proponent of progressive education, maintained that schools should reflect the life of the society. He suggested that the schools take on such responsibilities as the acculturation of immigrants in addition to merely teaching academic skills. Dewey also proposed a number of specific curricular changes that had strong impact on subsequent reformers. At his Laboratory School in Chicago, for example, Dewey developed (1896–1904) a method in which younger student groups worked on a central project related to their own interests. The division of more advanced work into units organized around some central theme was an attempt to adapt the method to the academic needs of older children.

Other efforts to reorganize the schools included the Gary plan, developed (1908–15) in Gary, Ind. Devised to utilize the school plant more efficiently, to provide opportunity for more practical work, and to coordinate various levels of schooling, the plan divided the school building into classrooms and space for auditorium, playground, shops, and laboratories. Two schools ran simultaneously in this space so that every facility was in constant use. The school day was eight hours long, and schools were open six days a week. The Gary plan was widely adopted. The Dalton plan (1919), at Dalton, Mass., subdivided the work of the traditional curriculum into contract units, which the student undertook to accomplish in a specified amount of time. The Winnetka plan, established (1919) at Winnetka, Ill., separated the curriculum into the subjects handled by the Dalton technique and used the cooperative method of creative social activities developed by Dewey.

A prominent experimental school was established by Francis Parker at the Cook County Normal School (Chicago, 1883). The Horace Mann School (New York City, 1887), the Lincoln School (1917) at Teachers College, Columbia Univ., and the experimental school (1915) at the State Univ. of Iowa were other notable progressive institutions. Activities programs were designed to supply certain aspects of progressive education to those schools in which more radical adjustments were not possible; the activities included clubs, student self-government, and school publications.

Popularity and Long-term Effects

The principles and practices of progressive education gained wide acceptance in American school systems during the first half of the 20th cent.; similar pedagogical innovations were instituted in many of the schools of Europe. From its inception, however, the movement elicited rather sharp criticism from a variety of different sources, particularly for its failure to emphasize systematic study of the academic disciplines. Opposition increased greatly in the years following World War II, and many hold that by the late 1950s the movement had collapsed. By that time, however, the progressive movement had effected a permanent transformation in the character of the American school, and many progressive schools across the country were firmly established. Other educational reform movements that have been affected by or are similar to progressive education are open educationopen education,
also known as open classroom, type of educational reform. The central tenet of this informal system is that children want to learn and will do so naturally if left to their own initiative.
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, the SummerhillSummerhill,
radical progressive school in Leiston, Suffolk, England, and the educational movement based on principles developed at the school. The school was founded (1924) by A. S. Neill, who headed the institution until his death in 1973.
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 school, and the reforms of Maria MontessoriMontessori, Maria
, 1870–1952, Italian educator and physician. She was the originator of the Montessori method of education for young children and was the first woman to receive (1894) a medical degree in Italy.
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See J. Dewey, The School and Society (1899, rev. ed. 1943, repr. 1961), Schools of To-morrow (1915, repr. 1962), and Democracy and Education (1916, rev. ed. 1944, repr. 1966); H. Rugg and A. Shumaker, The Child-Centered School (1928, repr. 1969); L. A. Cremin, The Transformation of the School (1961, repr. 1964); P. A. Graham, Progressive Education from Arcady to Academe (1967); L. Gordon, Gender and Higher Education in the Progressive Era (1990); K. Jervis and C. Montag, ed., Progressive Education for the 1990s (1991).

Progressive Education


a bourgeois pedagogical concept whose adherents believe that the content, organization, and methods of instruction, especially in primary school, should be determined by the direct, spontaneous interests and needs of children rather than by the socioeconomic conditions and needs of society. Progressive education seeks to replace the communication of systematic knowledge to children with an organization of the learning process by means of which “the child’s personality has the greatest opportunity to manifest itself” through games, discussions, and other activities based on children’s so-called centers of interests. The teacher’s task is merely to direct his pupils’ activities. The ideas of progressive education constitute a basic part of the pedagogical systems of J.-J. Rousseau, the well-known Belgian pedagogue and psychologist O. Decroly, and J. Dewey.

References in periodicals archive ?
In fact, stimulating a child's imagination and allowing her the greatest possible freedoms were two of the mainstays of the progressive education practiced by cooperative nursery schools.
Dewey's progressive education rests upon philosophical notions of man and the good life that are not compatible with the understanding of education that Livingstone presents.
Although the media is dominated by reports on the merits of traditional education, the five articles reviewed here reveal that the influence of progressive education, which originated over 100 years ago, is still vital to current education issues.
As well as being a popular author and outspoken supporter of progressive education, Leila also championed the idea of parents and children sharing books together.
Brooklyn Technical High School has a reputation of being at the forefront of progressive education.
Agency men and women's groups within the NADGC pushed forward a progressive education agenda that came to define the Association.
He added: "He gave his daughters a progressive education through tutors.
Catholic educators in the United States weighed in on the debate over progressive education and its related educational reforms in the first half of the 20th century.
Fleur Sexton, of Progressive Education Tools, helped run the event for young people at Eburne Community Centre.
org and for a complete listing of progressive education journals and books published by Caddo Gap Press visit www.
In his second book in this series, The Schools We Need: And Why We Don't Have Them (1996), he described in fulsome terms the insular "thought-world" of progressive education, based in the nation's schools of education, which had miseducated teachers and administrators for decades.
Weaver rightly attacked Deweyite progressive education as motivated by a political agenda to the detriment of instruction in truth and truth-seeking.

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