in 1977 (6) to the "trichloroacetimidate method" where an O-C=N moiety could be constructed using the nucleophilicity of hemiacetals and activated by a protonic acid or B[F.
B) Site specific activation by a nascent protonic acid without affecting the inner glycosidic bonds.
Using functionalized protonic acid
such as camphorsulfonic acid as a dopant it is possible to obtain enhanced solubility and stability of the nanostructures .
Blanchet-Fincher and Gao have developed a printing formulation consisting of an organic conducting polymer such as polyaniline, polythiophene, polypyrrole, or polyvinylene, doped with an organic protonic acid
and 5 to 20 wt% plasticizer.
Several dopants have been proposed for inducing PANI, for example, protonic acid
(6), Lewis acid (7), and transition-metal salts (8).
It is different from other conjugated conducting polymers in that it can be doped to a conducting form without changing the number of [pi]-electrons through protonation by exposure to an aqueous protonic acid
The possibility of synthesizing and doping polyaniline with protonic acid
dopants containing different types of counter-ions is one of the key factors responsible for the versatility of this class of polymers.
However, an organic protonic acid
doping method resulting in a thermally stable doped complex has recently achieved great progress towards stability.
The approach has been used in ferroelectric materials, but could also have applications in ferroelastics, solid protonic acids
and materials known as relaxors.
To tackle this problem, extensive studies have led to the development of a synthetic route toward soluble PAM through the synthesis of PANI protonated with organic protonic acids
of a large molecular size (14-16), or introducing flexible substituents onto the benzene rings or nitrogen atoms (17), or through the synthesis of graft or block copolymers (18-20), and so on.
Interactions between HALS and protonic acids
have been the subject of numerous studies.
Polyaniline (PANI) doped with protonic acids
is an important intrinsically conducting polymer owing to its relatively high conductivity, good processability, and environmental stability (2).