The bones of the dermatocranium and the mandible are the first to begin the ossification process: squamosal, pterygoid
, maxilla, dentary, coronoid, supra-angular and branchial horn I in stage 16, the frontal, jugal, postorbital, parietal, premaxilla and prefrontal in stage 17, and the palatine and quadratojugal in stage 19.
differs only with regard to the presence or absence of a dorsal process (PrD, Figures 5 to 9) and of a rostral expansion.
It is defined superiorly by the temporal bone, posteriorly by the vertebrae and prevertebral muscles including their fasciae, and laterally by the mandible, the posterior belly of the digastric muscle and the medial pterygoid
Squamosal delicate; anterior arm slender; posterior arm three fifths length of anterior arm, medial ala overlying dorsolateral surface of crista parotica; ventral arm well developed, distally articulating with quadratojugal laterally and posterior ramus of pterygoid
6] Contrast enhancement also allows the tumor to be located precisely in reference to the medial and lateral pterygoid
In the mandibular arch the quadrate and pterygoid
are considered to be the dorsal homologs, while Meckel's cartilage is believed to correspond to the ventral homolog.
The masseter, temporalis, and medial pterygoid
muscles elevate the mandible and therefore provide the major forces used for chewing and other jaw functions.
The muscle markings end at a bondy lip, which served as an anchor for the medial pterygoid
, the Israeli researcher notes.
Other sites include a paranasal sinuses, orbital walls, temporal bone, pterygoid
processes and external ear canal.
19-21) The superior portion of the lateral pterygoid
is inaccessible to palpation whereas palpation of the inferior lateral pterygoid
remains a contentious issue.
Pneumatization may extend into the greater and lesser wings of the sphenoid or pterygoid
process and the anterior clinoid process; it can also extend into the occipital bone.
griseus has shorter, wider, and higher (specially at the braincase) cranium, with larger orbits and tympanic bullae, concave posterior borders of the palate, smaller temporal fossae, wider postorbital constriction, wider pterygoid
fossae, and smaller postorbital processes of the frontal.