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synthetic esters of chrysanthemumic acid; analogs of pyrethrins.

Pyrethroids are obtained either by the reaction of chrysanthemumyl chloride with an alcoholic moiety in the presence of a tertiary amine or by transesterification of the ethyl ester of chrysanthemumic acid in the presence of sodium. The pyrethroids that are most toxic to insects are esters of cyclopentenolones, of substituted benzyl alcohols, and of N-hydroxymethylimides.

Pyrethroids produced today include allethrin (2-allyl-3-meth-yl-2-cyclopenten-4-oI-l-onyl chrysanthemumate), furethrin (2-furfury 1 -3-methyl -2- cyclopenten - 4 -ol -1 - ony 1 chrysanthemum-ate), cyclethrin (2-cyclopentenyl-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-4-ol-1 -onyl chrysanthemumate), barthrin (6-chloropiperonyl chrysanthemumate), dimethrin (2,4-dimethylbenzyl chrysanthemumate), and tetrametrine [N-(3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalimido)-methyl chrysanthemumate]. These compounds, usually in the form of aerosols, are used against household insects.


Mel’nikov, N. N., and K. D. Shvetsova-Shilovskaia. “Sintez insektitsidov piretrinovogo riada.” Khimicheskaia promyshlennost’, 1955, no. 3, pp. 50–61.
Volkov, Iu. P., and N. F. Shugal. “Sinteticheskie analogi piretrinov. Khimicheskaia promyshlennost’, 1969, no. 9, pp. 14–19.
Chemie der Pflanzenschutz- und Schädlingsbekä mpfungsmittel, vol. 1. Edited by R. Wegler. Berlin, 1970. Pages 87–102.


References in periodicals archive ?
2)] of pyrethroid insecticides (Figure 3), and it took over 120 minutes to reach 100% mortality.
Given these elements and the mode of action (neurotoxicity) of pyrethroid insecticides, the researchers proposed the hypothesis of a possible effect of these contaminants on the nervous system and its development in children.
In the mouse studies, pyrethroid exposure was found to trigger abnormalities in the dopamine system, which produced an 'ADHD phenotype," the investigators said.
Although pyrethroids are considered to be safer than other insecticides, rodent studies suggest that early-life and pubertal pyrethroid exposures alter neurobehavioral functioning (Farag et al.
Most countries in Africa that have implemented resistance monitoring since 2010 have detected pyrethroid resistance in some regions.
Reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin in Anopheles culicifacies sensu lato in District Ramanathapuram in Tamil Nadu: Selection of a pyrethroid resistant strain.
Work carried out by Rothamsted Research as part of an HGCA project, has found 'knock down resistance' in UK populations of the beetle, providing them with a moderate resilience to pyrethroids applied at recommended field rates.
Pyrethroid resistance has exploded in concert with the scale-up of pyrethroid-treated bednets, causing concern for those countries that depend on LLINs for vector control.
5%) of the bat samples contained pyrethroid residues and all contained detectable concentrations of OCs.
In the US, 2 million pounds of permethrin, the most common pyrethroid used, are applied annually in agricultural and residential settings.
The DNA market became so crowded it was almost like the 1980s pyrethroids insecticide market.
Mortality was determined after 24 h for the organophosphate, carbamate, pyrethroid, and neonicotinoid treatments.