raisin


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Related to raisin: raisin bread

Raisin,

river, 115 mi (185 km) long, rising in S Mich. and flowing E to Lake Erie at Monroe, Mich. After Detroit's surrender in the War of 1812, U.S. troops under Gen. James Winchester, sent to retake Frenchtown (the present Monroe), were crushed there by the British and their Native American allies. The Native Americans, after promising protection, attacked and killed (Jan. 22, 1813) the remaining Americans, and "Remember the River Raisin" became the American rallying cry to the war's end.

raisin,

dried fruit of certain varieties of grapevines bearing grapesgrape,
common name for the Vitaceae, a family of mostly climbing shrubs, widespread in tropical and subtropical regions and extending into the temperate zones. The woody vines, or lianas, climb by means of tendrils, which botanically are adaptations of terminal buds.
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 with a high content of sugar and solid flesh. Although the fruit is sometimes artificially dehydrated, it is usually sun-dried. The culture of grapes for the production of raisins is limited to regions with a long, hot growing season because the grape must remain on the vine until fully mature in order to attain a high percentage of sugar and because enough time must elapse between harvesting and fall rains to permit sun-drying. Raisins are produced from grapes of the European type (Vitis vinifera). Most seedless raisins, especially in California, are produced from the Sultanina, or Thompson, variety of seedless grape, known in international trade as the Sultana. A different variety, produced in California, is known there as the Sultana. The Muscat, a very ancient variety, is noted for its flavor and meatiness, but it has seeds and is somewhat sticky; it is commonly marketed in clusters for table use. Raisins of sharp flavor and firm texture are often called currants (although unrelated to the true currant) and are preferred for certain bakery products. Grapes have been dried for out-of-season consumption from ancient times and were important in early Mediterranean trade. Spain, Asia Minor, and Greece were long the centers of cultivation, but in the 20th cent. Australia is an important producer and California is the leading producer. Raisin production was introduced in California by Spanish missionaries in the late 18th cent. and began to assume importance after 1875. Today most seed grapes are seeded, and many grapes are bleached and dipped in oil to improve their appearance. About 3 1-2 lb (1.6 kg) of grapes yield 1 lb (.45 kg) of raisins. Raisins are valuable nutritionally because of their sugar, mineral (especially iron), and vitamin (B and A) content.
References in classic literature ?
He talked on, therefore, at great length, while I merely leaned back in my chair with my eyes shut, and amused myself with munching raisins and filliping the stems about the room.
Some had raisins for eyes and currant buttons on their clothes; others had eyes of cloves and legs of stick cinnamon, and many wore hats and bonnets frosted pink and green.
I used to help grandma bat up cake, and rather liked it, if I remember right," said Tom, letting Polly tie a checked apron on him, put a big bowl into his hands, and settle him near the table, where Maud was picking raisins, and she herself stirring busily about among spice-boxes, rolling-pins, and butter-pots.
It's my nuts and raisins from dinner," replied Rebecca, who never succeeded in keeping the most innocent action a secret from her aunt Miranda; "they're just what you gave me on my plate.
I found them all three seated round the table, a bottle of Spanish wine and some raisins before them, and the doctor smoking away, with his wig on his lap, and that, I knew, was a sign that he was agitated.
They have in the greatest plenty raisins, peaches, sour pomegranates, and sugarcanes, and some figs.
He was satisfied with two arrobas of raisins and two bushels of wheat, and promised to translate them faithfully and with all despatch; but to make the matter easier, and not to let such a precious find out of my hands, I took him to my house, where in little more than a month and a half he translated the whole just as it is set down here.
On one was piled certain curiously twisted and complicated figures, called “nut-cakes,” On another were heaps of a black-looking sub stance, which, receiving its hue from molasses, was properly termed “sweet-cake ;” a wonderful favorite in the coterie of Remarkable, A third was filled, to use the language of the housekeeper, with “cards of gingerbread ;” and the last held a “ plum- cake,” so called from the number of large raisins that were showing their black heads in a substance of suspiciously similar color.
Allow me to send off this coffee, this treacle, and these raisins," said Planchet; "they are for the store-room of monsieur le surintendant.
At last Therese put a dish of fruit on the table, a small collection of oranges, raisins, and nuts.
Two governesses were sitting with the Vogels at a table, on which were plates of raisins, walnuts, and almonds.
The matter being settled, they were once more put on shore: the sailors, producing raisins and tobacco, leant upon the rail and watched the six English, whose coats and dresses looked so strange upon the green, wander off.