rare earths


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rare earths,

in chemistry, oxides of the rare-earth metalsrare-earth metals,
in chemistry, group of metals including those of the lanthanide series and actinide series and usually yttrium, sometimes scandium and thorium, and rarely zirconium. Promethium, which is not found in nature, is not usually considered a rare-earth metal.
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. They were once thought to be elements themselves. They are widely distributed in the earth's crust and are fairly abundant, although they were once thought to be very scarce. Generally, the name of an earth is formed from the name of its element by replacing -um with -a; e.g., the earth of cerium is ceria. Mixed rare earths are used in glassmaking, ceramic glazes, glass-polishing abrasives, carbon arc-light electrode cores, and catalysts for petroleum refining. Individual purified rare earths have many uses, e.g., in laser, fiber-optic transmission amplifiers, and night-vision goggles. Important rare-earth minerals include bastnasite, cerite, euxenite, gadolinite, monazite, and samarskite.
References in periodicals archive ?
Its total output of rare earths for 2011 will be capped at 93,800 tons, which is a 5 percent increase from the prior year [Galluci 2011; Stanway 2011].
A reduction in the use of heavy rare earth elements has been one of the major challenges needing to be addressed, the companies said in a joint release.
000 mt/y of high-purity, separated total rare earth oxides during its first four years of operation (Phase 1), doubling to 16,000 mt/y from year five onwards (Phase 2).
They led to efforts to reopen or develop new mines in the United States and elsewhere, and by Japan and some other countries to recycle rare earths.
These and many other crucial factors that will affect the future of the burgeoning rare earths industry are examined in detail in a new market report The Rare Earths Industry Worldwide 2014-2017.
Mining for heavy rare earths and tungsten for this year have been set at 17,900 metric tonnes and 89,000 tonnes, respectively.
The Ngualla discovery is the highest grade of the large undeveloped rare earth deposits and is capable of supporting a mine life of over 50 years at a 10,000tpa rare earth oxide (REO) base case production level.
Japan Rare Earths is a rare earth mining and recycling company based in Tokyo, Japan.
A report by Xinhua, China's state-owned news agency, quoted Gu Ming, general manager of the Baotou Rare Earth Products Exchange, who said trading systems were being tested and could be ready for a trial run in October.
China has a monopoly on rare earth minerals and its distribution led to price volatility; US researchers quickly responded to develop substitutes
China supplies over 90 percent of rare earth products on the global market with just 23 percent of the world's total reserves, according to the white paper titled "Situation and Policies of China's Rare Earth Industry.
Congressional Rare Earth Caucus on the use of rare earth elements by the metalcasting industry and its customers.