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the approval by a country’s supreme governing body of an international treaty concluded by its representative. As a rule, only the most important international treaties are subject to ratification. However, ratification is essential if it is stipulated in the treaty, if the parties’ intention to ratify the treaty clearly stems from the circumstances of its conclusion, or if the representative of the respective state signed the treaty “subject to ratification” or such a condition is directly stated in the credentials defining the representative’s powers.

The constitutions of most states assign the right of ratification of international treaties to the head of state (either with or without the sanction of the supreme legislative body) or directly to the supreme legislative body. For instance, the Constitution of the USSR grants the right of ratification to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR or directly to the Supreme Soviet. The USSR law on the procedure for ratifying or denouncing international treaties, adopted Aug. 20, 1938, establishes the types of treaties concluded by the USSR that are subject to ratification. They include peace treaties, treaties on mutual defense against aggression, treaties on mutual nonaggression, and treaties during the conclusion of which the parties agree to subsequent ratification.

Ratification is recorded by each state in an instrument of ratification, which states that the treaty has been examined by the ratifying body, carries the text of the treaty itself, and declares that the treaty will be complied with by the given state. The required signatures are given, and a seal is affixed. When concluding bilateral international treaties, the parties exchange instruments of ratification; when a multilateral treaty is ratified, the contracting states deliver the instruments of ratification to another state designated as the depository.

References in periodicals archive ?
7 for 2018 ratifying an agreement on the reciprocal promotion and protection of investments with Antigua and Barbuda.
He then issued Decree No 82 of 2017 ratifying the air service agreement between the governments of Qatar and Burkina Faso, signed in Doha on March 22, 2016.
By ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, Russia in fact is strengthening its international authority and becoming an ecological leader, '' Vladimir Grachev, chairman of the Duma's ecology committee, told the chamber before the vote.
As such, Ms Bachelot underlined how "persuasive action" must be taken toward Moscow on the Kyoto protocol, while Mr Trittin insisted on the economic advantages for Russia in ratifying the Protocol.
The second optional protocol, which requires all ratifying countries to abolish the death penalty, has been ratified by thirty-three countries and signed by twenty-one.
There were four items of business before the annual shareholder meeting: (1) The election of four Class III Directors; (2) Ratifying the selection of KPMG LLP as the Company's independent auditor; (3) Approval of the 2005 Independent Bank Corp.
Marcos said he was not against the Edca itself as he was only pointing out that Senate's role in ratifying a treaty.
These Decisions, when combined, lift any barriers within EU legislation that were preventing EU Member States from ratifying the 2010 HNS Protocol and so EU Member States will now be able to ratify if they wish to do so.
25/2014 ratifying the Arab Convention for the Transfer of Inmates at Penal and Correctional Institutions within the framework of implementing the penal codes.
44/ 2012) Ratifying an Annex of the Agreement on Avoidance of Double Taxation between the Government of the Sultanate of Oman and the Government of the Republic of France signed at Muscat on April 8th, 2012.
To avoid such failures,'' Arima said, ''Japan calls upon the international community at the highest political levels to take the decisive step of ratifying the CTBT at the earliest possible date.