To estimate the total gas sales and deliveries for the State, a ratio estimator is applied to the reported volumes in each State for the sampled companies.

The classical ratio estimator (CRE) for the volume of gas in a State for consumer sector j is:

Taking into account non-normality in the returns, especially skewness and kurtosis, can have significant effect on the standard error of the Sharpe

ratio estimator.

A

ratio estimator is applied to the volumes reported in each State by the sampled companies to estimate the total gas sales and deliveries for the State.

Because bycatch is typically discarded at sea, total bycatch is usually estimated by extrapolating from an observed bycatch sample to the entire fleet with either mean-per-unit or

ratio estimators, Using both field observations of commercial shrimp trawlers and computer simulations, I compared five methods for generating bycatch estimates that were used in past studies, a mean per-unit estimator and four forms of the

ratio estimator, respectively: 1) the mean fish catch per unit of effort, where unit effort was a proxy for sample size, 2) the mean of the individual fish to shrimp ratios, 3) the ratio of mean fish catch to mean shrimp catch, 4) the mean of the ratios offish catch per time fished (a variable measure of effort), and 5) the ratio of mean fish catch per mean time fished.

The link-relative estimator, which is similar to the

ratio estimator except that only reported values of [X.

There is added coverage on regression, censored data applications, P-value adjustment, and

ratio estimators.

Ratio estimators are calculated for each consumer sector - residential, commercial, and industrial--in each State where companies are sampled using annual data from the most recent submission of Form EIA 176.

Ratio estimators are calculated for each consumer sector -- residential, commercial, and industrial -- in each State where companies are sampled using annual data from the most recent submission of Form EIA 176.

Ratio estimators are calculated for each consumer sector -- residential, commercial, and industrial in each State where companies are sampled using annual data from the most recent submission of Form EIA-176.

Ratio estimators are calculated for each consumer sector - residential, commercial, and industrial - in each State where companies are sampled using annual data from the most recent submission of Form EIA-176.

Ratio estimators are calculated for each consumer sector-residential, commercial, and industrial - in each State where companies are sampled using annual data from the most recent submission of Form EIA-176.