In another study by Ihezuonu and Anedo (2008) on the language form/variety of Okwudo in Igbo, they observed that complete reduplication
involves the reduplication
of the whole v-structure, and is used for the formation of nouns from verbs in Okwud.
vac 'to speak', where the restored *v is part of the reduplication
As is seen in Table 5, the results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the whole Description Skill Scoring Rubric as well as the concretization, reduplication
, simile and adjective criteria.
Identification of reduplication
has already been carried out using the clues of Bengali morphological patterns .
There is marked, diffuse thickening of the glomerular capillary walls with reduplication
of the basal lamina (mesangial interposition), which can lead to narrowing of the capillary lumens (Figures 3 and 4).
In particular, we assumed that roots were no more than four moras (Krupa 1966, Krupa 1971), and further scrutinized the entry of each headword for evidence of complexity, including common affixes, reduplication
, and cross-referencing.
More importantly, Effer (1884:196) considers the instances where there is no consonant reduplication
after a short vowel as lengthened forms, either due to Hornorganic Cluster Lengthening (HCL) or Open Syllable Lengthening (OSL).
Suffixation is often accompanied by reduplication
, clipping, or both: this is the case of eeksie-peeksie (= on an equality, much alike), which derives from equal.
Table 1: Superstrate and Substrate influences on NP Lexical NP Lexical NP Meaning source Item English pale pal/friend veks vex maintain be calm obstacle meat remote control witchcraft Portuguese Palava problem/trouble pikin child dash gift sabi know brusai flirt French Boku Plenty kampe fine/durable pantalun bogus pair of trousers rundevu reckless spending Nigerian go slow hold up English machine motorcycle/new car watchnight night watch man houseboy male servant upstair storey building Igbo Okoro an Igbo man inyanga show off ogogoro locally brewed gin ogbanje reincarnated birth Table 2: Reduplication
in Nigerian Pidgin Nig.
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One of her many insightful observations concerns the reduplication
of scenes, the parallelism in music and visual structures, which she calls a "filmic poetic" (101).
Plural nouns are achieved by reduplication
("casa-casa" means "houses"), as well as plural adjectives and emphatic verbs ("cedo-cedo" means "very early").