Reduplication


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Related to Reduplication: affixation

Reduplication

 

in linguistics, complete or partial repetition of a root, stem, or word. Reduplication may express plurality, as in the Malay orang (“person”) and orangorang (“people”). It may be used to intensify an action or quality, as in the Russian khodish’-khodish’ (“you walk and walk”) and bol’shoi-bol’shoi (“very big”). Sometimes an adjective formed by reduplication expresses a lesser degree of a quality, as exemplified by the Malagasy fotsi-fotsi (“whitish”). Reduplication may also express different aspectual and other meanings in a verb. In the Indo-European languages, there is partial reduplication in the formation of the perfect and present. Reduplication is also used in onomatopoeic expressions, such as the Russian ku-ku (the call of the cuckoo) and the English “tick-tick.”

References in periodicals archive ?
In another study by Ihezuonu and Anedo (2008) on the language form/variety of Okwudo in Igbo, they observed that complete reduplication involves the reduplication of the whole v-structure, and is used for the formation of nouns from verbs in Okwud.
vac 'to speak', where the restored *v is part of the reduplication syllable.
As is seen in Table 5, the results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the whole Description Skill Scoring Rubric as well as the concretization, reduplication, simile and adjective criteria.
Identification of reduplication has already been carried out using the clues of Bengali morphological patterns [11].
There is marked, diffuse thickening of the glomerular capillary walls with reduplication of the basal lamina (mesangial interposition), which can lead to narrowing of the capillary lumens (Figures 3 and 4).
In particular, we assumed that roots were no more than four moras (Krupa 1966, Krupa 1971), and further scrutinized the entry of each headword for evidence of complexity, including common affixes, reduplication, and cross-referencing.
More importantly, Effer (1884:196) considers the instances where there is no consonant reduplication after a short vowel as lengthened forms, either due to Hornorganic Cluster Lengthening (HCL) or Open Syllable Lengthening (OSL).
Suffixation is often accompanied by reduplication, clipping, or both: this is the case of eeksie-peeksie (= on an equality, much alike), which derives from equal.
Table 1: Superstrate and Substrate influences on NP Lexical NP Lexical NP Meaning source Item English pale pal/friend veks vex maintain be calm obstacle meat remote control witchcraft Portuguese Palava problem/trouble pikin child dash gift sabi know brusai flirt French Boku Plenty kampe fine/durable pantalun bogus pair of trousers rundevu reckless spending Nigerian go slow hold up English machine motorcycle/new car watchnight night watch man houseboy male servant upstair storey building Igbo Okoro an Igbo man inyanga show off ogogoro locally brewed gin ogbanje reincarnated birth Table 2: Reduplication in Nigerian Pidgin Nig.
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One of her many insightful observations concerns the reduplication of scenes, the parallelism in music and visual structures, which she calls a "filmic poetic" (101).
Plural nouns are achieved by reduplication ("casa-casa" means "houses"), as well as plural adjectives and emphatic verbs ("cedo-cedo" means "very early").