reduplicate

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reduplicate

(of petals or sepals) having the margins curving outwards
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Three articles deal with reduplication and child language, the first of which, by Wolfgang Dressler, Katarzyna Dziubalska-Kolaczyk, Natalia Gagarina and Marianne Kilani-Schloch, provides especially rich theoretical background.
I find their distinction between continuous and discontinuous occurrences very insightful for discussions on reduplication semantics, but it would be nice if they showed exactly what triggers the extension from the discontinuous interpretation of reduplication to the diminutive one.
Their theoretical distinctions and arguments seem sound, but, although they give some plausible answers to why reduplication appears in creolization (avoidance of homophonous words, expansion of the lexicon etc.
This is perhaps the price for the advantage it offers: it covers a typologically wide scope in examining particular problems relating to reduplication in many different languages.
2] is said to be compensatory reduplication since it is strictly a phonological process.
Reduplication in nominal derivation must further be distinguished from reduplication in root formation, an example of which was given in (lb).
19) Primary nouns with reduplication are attested in all of the Semitic languages and can also be reconstructed to Proto-Semitic, e.
In Semitic nominal derivation, reduplication often provides an extension in the meaning of a word in comparison to its non-reduplicated base.
Developed in Inkelas and Zoll (2005), building on earlier proposals by Singh (1982), Saperstein (1997), Sherrard (2001), and others, Morphological Doubling Theory (MDT) is an approach to reduplication in which morphological constructions can call for two instances of the same morphological constituent, where "same" is defined at the level of meaning, not phonology.
Example (3b) shows the specific schematic construction that accomplishes pluralizing total nominal reduplication in Dyirbal from (1), and (3c) represents the actual Dyirbal form in (la):
Cases like these, while not as well-known as other types of reduplication, clearly show the role of morphosemantic identity and the lack of a role of phonological identity in morphological doubling constructions.
Rubino characterizes this sort of reduplication as being an obligatory in the context of the affix but not carrying any meaning of its own that would motivate its occurrence.