reference group


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reference group

the actual (or notional) groups or social categories with which SOCIAL ACTORS identify and make comparisons in guiding their personal behaviour and social ATTITUDES, e.g. the identification of young people with rock stars, or sports people. The term was introduced by the social psychologist Muztafer Sherif in 1948. Reference groups may or may not be synonymous with a social actor's membership groups. Negative as well as positive reference groups may be involved. See also ANTICIPATORY SOCIALIZATION, RELATIVE DEPRIVATION.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Reference Group will also comprise four Members of Parliament to be confirmed shortly and six representatives from key survivor support and advocacy groups, as well as Indigenous support services, survivors of institutional child sexual abuse and family members of survivors.
We are currently establishing a reference group made up of residents, businesses and community groups to give their feedback on the future plans for Guisborough Town Hall.
occidentalis, [alpha]-thujone, or reference groups, which authors suggested was representative of good healing activity of the active treatments.
Use of celebrities in television advertisements is treated as reference group by the consumers as most of the consumers admire them and want to be associated with their favorite celebrities and because of this association consumers behave in the way similar to their favorite celebrities
H1b: Atypical low spending of the aspirational reference group will not make high SCOs change their spending from their current level on either public or private products.
In physiological studies performed against the background of the scientific and economic experience, there was a general tendency to increasing digestibility of all nutrients in the forage by bull-calves in experimental groups compared to the reference group.
Scores comparing the test taker with each of the 5,142 members of the reference group were then placed into rank order from the lowest score to the highest score.
A Crown Prosecution Service spokesperson said: "We are pleased to confirm that Dr Silvia Casale, Prof Roger Graef and Sir Stephen Sedley will form a reference group for the investigations surrounding the Hillsborough disaster.
This section reports the results for the significantly different responses to the Health on Equal Terms questionnaire by the two groups--the participants with USH2 and the reference group.
Reference group formation is a response both to internal planning needs and to external pressures for accountability in higher education (Bender and Schuh 2002).
However, the Government has stated that there will be an internal appeals mechanism (23) and there is agreement within the Reference Group that this should occur.
A reference group is defined as any individual or group with whom we have a real or imagined relationship (p.

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