As one would guess, the Hausman test indicates that the IV estimate differs statistically from the ordinary

regression estimate in row 2.

Consider the direct

regression estimate plus the K reverse regressions where the K regressors x, i = 1,[ldots], K are each regressed on y and the reverse

regression estimates then computed (by solving for y in terms of the x's).

Thus, if one follows the traditional Becker-Mincer type of earnings function specification which excludes ability, then, some of the returns to schooling are really "returns" to ability thus leading to an upward bias in the

regression estimate of the schooling's rate of return.

Where a significant correlation was confirmed, the standardised

regression estimate was included to indicate the direction and extent of the independent apprenticeship variable.

The least squares

regression estimate [beta] minimizes the sum of squared error terms [[SIGMA].

For instance, if F{Y,X) is a unimodal Gaussian distribution, the conditional mean, E(Y/X;[theta]), coincides with the linear

regression estimate.

Panel B contains the

regression estimate for publicly held stocks.

In the first phase of the MM-estimation is calculated a

regression estimate, which is consistent and have a high break-down point, but is not necessarily efficient.

The regression coefficient estimate for community beneficiaries age 0-54 is -$48, and for the longterm institutionalized the

regression estimate is -$1.

However, the comparable simple

regression estimate for the incomes of the rich is still substantially greater.

As a means of illustrating this problem in the current context, Table 3 presents the top five most influential observations for a simple levels OLS

regression estimate of equation (1).

20) The SOE effect is comparable to the public sector effect in the mean regression but exhibits a greater degree of stability across the conditional wage distribution as confirmed by the inter-quantile

regression estimate.