Regurgitation

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regurgitation

[ri‚gər·jə′tā·shən]
(medicine)
Reverse circulation of blood in the heart due to defective functioning of the valves.
(physiology)
Bringing back into the mouth undigested food from the stomach.

Regurgitation

(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Many of the early materialization mediums were accused of fraud, with the explanation that the ectoplasm that they produced was, in fact, physical material that they had swallowed and then regurgitated. This theory was first propounded in 1922 by the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) in the case of Eva C.. The medium Eva Carriere was visiting London and being investigated by the SPR. Professor Charles Richet said, “They [the SPR] admit that the only possible trickery is regurgitation. But what is meant by that? How can masses of mobile substance, organized as hands, faces, and drawings, be made to emerge from the oesophagus or the stomach? … How, when the medium’s hands are tied and held, could papers be unfolded, put away and made to pass through a veil?"

At a séance on November 26, 1913, conducted by Baron von Schrenck-Notzing, a strong emetic was given to Eva to answer the charge that the ectoplasm was actually regurgitated material. It satisfied the researchers that she had swallowed nothing. A number of experiments took place at Dr. Gustav Geley’s laboratories in 1917 and 1918. Nearly 150 scientists and others witnessed the sittings.

To state that the medium had “obviously regurgitated material” became a typical dismissal of a medium’s performance by a researcher either too lazy to fully investigate or too skeptical to accept what was being proven before his eyes. However, there certainly were fraudulent mediums who did swallow cheesecloth and similar material and attempt to regurgitate it to create an ectoplasmic effect. One such was Helen Duncan, who was examined by the National Laboratory of Psychical Research. Following this, the Morning Post of July 14, 1931, carried an article claiming that Duncan had been caught out and exposed as a fraud. Researcher Harry Price called her “one of the cleverest frauds in the history of Spiritualism.” It transpired that the “ectoplasm” was in fact a composition of wood pulp and egg white, which she was able to swallow and then regurgitate. On July 17, the Light carried a followup article also branding her as a fraud and carrying a confession from her husband.

Sources:

Fodor, Nandor: Encyclopedia of Psychic Science. London: Arthurs Press, 1933
The International Survivalist Society: http://www.survivalafterdeath.org
Psychic News, #3754, June 19, 2004. Stansted, Essex
Leonard, Sue (ed): Quest For the Unknown—Life Beyond Death. Pleasantville: Reader’s Digest, 1992
References in periodicals archive ?
Staff member Lyndsey Crawford said: "Although she should be fending for herself now, and will eat whole fish when the staff dole them out, she still constantly pesters her parents to get them to regurgitate more food.
We know celebrities are thin but how many times can they regurgitate the same emaciated picturesp THE people who spent the best part of a week queuing for petrol.
Leishmania, a tropical parasite carried by sand flies, spreads prolifically to mammals by forcing the flies to regurgitate as they bite their prey, a new study finds.
And as for flies, they eat our leftovers then regurgitate their germs all over our food.
The four-year-old male would regurgitate fish on to the water surface to lure gulls - and then pounce.
He has an astonishing capacity to retain and regurgitate numbers and details, and rattles off the square-footages of each of the elements of the long-awaited Marlton Square development nearby.
Winterson proceeds to regurgitate various Modernist platitudes: the true artist is always ahead of her time, everything shocking eventually becomes commonplace, art has the power to heal emotional damage, etc.
Unlike many other birds, condors don't regurgitate and the lead fragments stay longer in their bodies.
Other caterpillars, when attacked, regurgitate the remains of noxious plants.
But unlike most magazine Web sites, VENT Magazine online does not regurgitate the print contents.
Bellissimo and Belardinelli are responsible for the fierce dust storms on the production's Santa Clarita sets, and other smaller effects, like making one character regurgitate a bucket of coins.
Should the nest overheat, workers regurgitate water and fan their wings.