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the return of ill health after an apparent or partial recovery



a new exacerbation of a disease during remission after an apparent recovery. In the case of a latent chronic infection, for example, brucellosis, pneumonia, and erysipelas, a relapse may be caused by inadequate immunity, chilling, or the supervention of a secondary infection. It may also be caused by a faulty diet, for example, with colitis, or by the cyclical nature of the disease itself (malaria, relapsing fever). The pathogenic microflora of the body is usually activated as a result of a relapse. A repeated infection caused by the same microorganisms is called a reinfection.

The pathogenesis of a relapse of a noninfectious disease is caused by shock, for example, with eczema, by vascular disorders, by regular malignant growth, and by inadequate treatment, for example, by the incomplete removal of a tumor. The pathogenesis of a relapse is sometimes unknown, for example, with familial Mediterranean fever and schizophrenia.

The clinical symptoms of a relapse may resemble or differ from the onset of a disease as a result of both the nature of the disease and the prescribed treatment. A relapse is sometimes more severe than the first attack of a disease and is more difficult to treat, as in the case of a relapse of acute leukemia. A relapse may be accompanied by complications, for example, intestinal bleeding in typhoid. Relapses are common to some diseases, for example, chronic dysentery. Treatment and preventive methods for relapses are usually the same as for the original disease.


References in periodicals archive ?
While chronic relapsers require a spiritual rearrangement, treatment or professional help is often necessary as well.
At 50 weeks, 27% of the fluoxetine-treated patients and 29% of the placebo controls were documented relapsers.
Histologic and clinical benefits of HCV treatment for relapsers and non-responders should also be characterized.
However, some authorities want to penalize relapsers.
Only 12% of the entire group of relapsers lacked one of these risk factors.
We are extremely happy about the data from these phase III studies, which robustly demonstrate high cure rates in both treatment-experienced, so called relapsers, and treatment-naove patient groups, both including patients with severe liver disease.
Even if members don't meet the criteria for entering the "Centers of Excellence" program, which includes intensive case management and is expected to focus on frequent relapsers, they can still go to these programs, said Dennis.
About half of the patients were new to therapy and the rest either nonresponders to dual therapy or triple-therapy relapsers.
High SVR rates (SVR4) for 12CEweek total telaprevir combination therapy in IL28B CC treatmentCEnaE[macron]ves and prior relapsers with G1 chronic hepatitis C: CONCISE interim analysis[sup.
These populations include adolescents, young adults, relapsers, people with chronic pain, impaired professionals, people with process addictions, and older adults.
Evidence suggests that one of the characteristics that differentiates those who succeed at quitting smoking from those who do not succeed is that relapsers rely more on environmental change processes and social management of contingencies, whereas maintainers rely more on inner-directed, experiential processes focused on self-liberation (increasing inner capacity for exercising behavioral choice and control) (Prochaska & DiClemente 1992).
Patients who requested retreatment were considered clinical relapsers.