relations of production


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relations of production

(MARXISM) the economic and social relations established between producers and nonproducers in the course of economic production. These combine with particular MEANS OF PRODUCTION to form a MODE OF PRODUCTION. One of the key distinctions is between capitalist and noncapitalist modes of production (see CAPITALISM AND CAPITALIST MODE OF PRODUCTION, NONCAPITALIST AND PRECAPITALIST MODES OF PRODUCTION). In the former the producers are separated from the ownership of the means of production. In non-capitalist modes, producers such as PEASANTS are likely to own many of the means of production, but are confronted by nonproducers, such as landlords, who extract an ECONOMIC SURPLUS from the producers often via the use of political, military or ideological power.
References in classic literature ?
The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionising the instruments of production, and thereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society.
Modern bourgeois society with its relations of production, of exchange and of property, a society that has conjured up such gigantic means of production and of exchange, is like the sorcerer, who is no longer able to control the powers of the nether world whom he has called up by his spells.
Many large and intensive agricultural operations remain family-owned; however, the social relations of production have changed as a growing number of farm operations expand, intensify, and externalize production costs onto farm workers.
Minor theory is a project and practice that should matter to those whose work it engages, not just because of issues of recognition--though these matter--but because the sorts of spaces, questions, categories, and analyses it opens up are useful for understanding and engaging uneven social relations of production and reproduction in a range of registers.
As Apeldoorn argues, "what distinguishes historical materialism from other perspectives is that it seeks to uncover the inner connections between the prevailing regime of surplus extraction as defined by the social relations of production and different systems of rule (different forms of state), including the relations and practices between those polities".
Bernad does not disclose the relations of production or the mode of production in Tamontaka, only that it was definitely not a commune.
In mostly ethnographic studies, they ask how the relations of production in the valley have changed over time, and what the impact has been and will be of processes of transformation in land ownership and the use of land.
Marx talks of change, resulting from the conflict between the forces and relations of production from one era to another.
In short, the emphasis on an analysis of the social relations of production allows one to understand both the state and the market as two different forms or expression of capitalist relations and thus a particular historical form of class struggle.
Kramer's cultural interpretation of nationalism emphasizes the role of means of communication (the printing press, newspapers, and novels) over relations of production and exchange (the elimination of guild, corporate, and municipal barriers to national markets) and military technology (gunpowder) in the emergence of modern nation-states.
And it is, as DeFazio herself notes, a marked departure from contemporary scholarship on the urban and the senses, which tends to consider analyses based on the social relations of production as too reductionist.
Kea discusses how agrarian transformations involve changes in the social relations of production, particularly how the changes from subsistence crops to cash crops (groundnuts) have involved changes in the gendered division of labour and a move towards increasingly individualized production systems.