procedure

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procedure,

in law, the rules that govern the obtaining of legal redress. This article deals only with civil procedure in Anglo-American law (for criminal procedure, see criminal lawcriminal law,
the branch of law that defines crimes, treats of their nature, and provides for their punishment. A tort is a civil wrong committed against an individual; a crime, on the other hand, is regarded as an offense committed against the public, even though only one
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). Except for evidenceevidence,
in law, material submitted to a judge or a judicial body to resolve disputed questions of fact. The rules discussed in this article were developed in England for use in jury trials.
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, procedure conventionally embraces all matters concerning legal actions that come to trial; thus, procedure is the means for enforcing the rights guaranteed by the substantive law.

Current Civil Procedure

A legal action, in its simplest form, is a proceeding of a plaintiff against a defendant from whom redress is sought. The plaintiff begins a lawsuit by filing a complaint, a written statement of his or her claim and the relief desired, with a court that has jurisdiction (authority to hear the case). The defendant is served a process (e.g., a summons) that notifies him or her of the suit and usually responds with an answer. Failure to respond ordinarily entitles the plaintiff to a judgment by default.

Today, liberal rules of pretrial discovery allow parties to a civil action to obtain information from other parties and their witnesses through depositions and other devices. Discovery (i.e., disclosure) is now used to ascertain the facts believed by the other side to exist, and to narrow the issues to be tried. At common lawcommon law,
system of law that prevails in England and in countries colonized by England. The name is derived from the medieval theory that the law administered by the king's courts represented the common custom of the realm, as opposed to the custom of local jurisdiction that
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, pleadings performed this function, and they were continued beyond the complaint and answer until an issue was agreed upon.

The issue is one of law if the defendant denies that the alleged acts are a violation of substantive law entitling the plaintiff to relief; it is one of fact if the defendant denies committing any of the alleged acts. The judge rules on an issue of law, and if the judge upholds the defendant the suit is dismissed. An issue of fact is resolved by the presentation of evidence to the juryjury,
body convened to make decisions of fact in legal proceedings. Development of the Modern Jury

Historians do not agree on the origin of the English jury.
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, or, in cases tried without a jury, by the judge. After the jury has delivered a verdict on the factual issue, the judge renders a judgmentjudgment,
decision of a court of law respecting the issues before it. The term ordinarily is not applied to the decree (order) of courts of equity. The outstanding characteristic of a legal judgment, in contrast to an equitable decree, is its finality and fixity; thus, except
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, which in most (but by no means all) instances upholds the verdict. At this point the case is closed (unless the losing party prosecutes an appealappeal,
in law, hearing by a superior court to consider correcting or reversing the judgment of an inferior court, because of errors allegedly committed by the inferior court.
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), and the plaintiff, if having won, proceeds to execution of the judgment.

Evolution of Procedural Law

Current procedural law has had a long historical evolution. The early common law allowed an action to be brought only if it closely conformed to a writwrit,
in law, written order issued in the name of the sovereign or the state in connection with a judicial or an administrative proceeding. Usually the writ requires the person to whom the command is issued to report at a fixed time (the return day) with proof of compliance or a
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. Rigorous enforcement of the rule "no writ, no right," and the small number of available writs acted to deny relief even in meritorious cases and stimulated the growth of equityequity,
principles of justice originally developed by the English chancellor. In Anglo-American jurisprudence equitable principles and remedies are distinguished from the older system that the common law courts evolved.
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, which, in its early days, gave redress generously.

By the 19th cent., however, the technical intricacy of equity and law procedure and the tendency to make cases hinge on procedural details rather than on substantive rights made reform imperative. The way was led by the New York code of civil procedure of 1848 (largely the work of David Dudley FieldField, David Dudley,
1805–94, American lawyer and law reformer, b. Haddam, Conn.; brother of Cyrus W. Field and Stephen J. Field. He was graduated from Williams (1825), studied law in Albany and New York City, was admitted to the bar in 1828, and soon had a large practice
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), which abolished the distinction between law and equity (thereby effecting great simplification) and established the cause of action as the procedural cornerstone. A similar reform was accomplished in Great Britain by the Judicature Acts of 1875. Today the procedure of most American jurisdictions is based on codes (like that of New York) rather than on common law and equity, although the influence of these separate categories is still frequently discernible.

Bibliography

See J. Michael, The Elements of Legal Controversy (1948); P. Carrington, Civil Procedure (1969).

procedure

[prə′sē·jər]
(computer science)
A sequence of actions (or computer instructions) which collectively accomplish some desired task.
In particular, a subroutine that causes an effect external to itself.

procedure

A series of predetermined maneuvers for the orderly transfer of an aircraft under instrument flight conditions from the beginning of the initial approach to a landing or to a point from which a landing may be made visually or the missed approach procedure is initiated.

procedure

1. the established mode or form of conducting the business of a legislature, the enforcement of a legal right, etc.
2. Computing another name for subroutine

procedure

procedure

(1) Manual procedures are human tasks.

(2) Machine procedures are lists of programs or operating system functions to be executed. A mainframe uses job control language (JCL). Unix systems use shell scripts. Windows machines use batch files.

(3) In programming, a procedure is another term for a subroutine or function.
References in periodicals archive ?
Each restorative procedure contains three stages: First of all, the pre-circle stage, in which the restorative procedure is requested by one or all the involved parties, the offender and the victim are individually interviewed by the justice facilitator and both indicate people from their local communities whom they wish to include in the circle.
Minor restorative procedures are commonly paid at 80% after the plan deductible is satisfied.
The composite applicator is dental equipment for extrusion of warm composites, which will help dentists work faster in precision placement of composite material to tooth cavity during restorative procedure.
At the end of the restorative procedures the distribution regarding the initial tooth condition was 44 previously restored (73.
Surgical crown lengthening has been proposed as a means of facilitating restorative procedures and preventing periodontal injuries in teeth with structurally inadequate clinical crowns or exposing tooth structure in the presence of deep, subgingival pathologies which may hamper the access for proper restorative measures.
Tenders are invited for Supply of Silver Amalgam Capsule For Dental Restorative Procedure
1 Find out percentage of healthy and mentally retard- ed children received dental treatment under GA and most common reason for using GA in healthy patients for restorative procedure.
Figure 7: Restorative Procedure D2330, Resin-Based Composite - One Surface, Anterior, Average
Some level of postoperative pain associated with any restorative procedure is normal and the patient should be warned in advance.
The use of Atlantis Abutments simplifies the restorative procedure and improves outcomes for patients and practitioners.
uses a patented process that employs 3D optical scanning, automated design software and integrated machining to manufacture individualized components for the dental implant market that simplify the restorative procedure and improve outcomes for patients and practitioners.
Premier's Centauri can be used to perform anterior capsulotomies, the opening of the capsule surrounding the lens allowing surgeons to remove cataracts; and certain cosmetic procedures including oculoplasty, a restorative procedure on tissue surrounding the eyes, and blepharoplasty, the removal of excessive eyelid tissue or bags under the eyes.