retardation


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retardation:

see mental retardationmental retardation,
below average level of intellectual functioning, usually defined by an IQ of below 70 to 75, combined with limitations in the skills necessary for daily living.
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retardation

(ree-tar-day -shŏn) The difference in the Moon's rising time between successive nights.

Retardation

 

in biology, the late formation and delayed development of an organ in offspring as compared with ancestors. Retardation depends on the beginning of the functioning of an organ and consequently on the environmental conditions in which the development of the individual organism (ontogeny) occurs.


Retardation

 

(1) In linguistics, a variation of the phenomenon of phonetic analogy consisting of a change in the form of a word (lexeme) under the influence of the phonetic form of another lexeme that precedes it in context. Retardation is characteristic of numbers, for example, Tadzhik shonzdakh (“sixteen”), instead of the expected shazdakh, by analogy with ponzdakh (“fifteen”). The same phenomenon operating in the reverse direction is known as anticipation, for example, Russian deviat’ (“nine”), instead of neviat’, under the influence of desiat’ (“ten”).

(2) In poetics, a compositional technique of holding back the development of the plot; it is accomplished by such means as lyric digressions, descriptions of landscapes or interiors, and the repetition of episodes of the same type.

retardation

[‚rē‚tär′dā·shən]
(medicine)
Slow mental or physical functioning.
(navigation)
The amount of delay in time or phase angle introduced by the resistivity of the surface over which the radio wave in radio navigation is passing.
(oceanography)
The amount of time by which corresponding tidal phases grow later day by day, averaging approximately 50 minutes.
(optics)
In interference microscopy, the difference in optical path between the light passing through the specimen and the light bypassing the specimen. Also known as optical-path difference.

retardation

Reduction in the rate of hardening or setting; an increase in the time required to reach initial and final set or to develop early strength of fresh concrete, mortar, plaster, or grout.
References in periodicals archive ?
Keywords: Mental retardation, Family life, Children, Pakistan, Positive contributions.
137(1), adopted in 2001 prior to the Atkins decision, but after Hall' s mitigation resentencing hearing, defines mental retardation as "significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the period from conception to age 18.
Hill, who was found to have an IQ of 70, was initially diagnosed with borderline intellectual functioning 6 instead of the more severe mental retardation 6 by those physicians, even though seven others determined he was actually mentally disabled.
Defense experts have diagnosed Wilson with mild retardation in comparison to others with the same diagnosis.
Assessing people with mental retardation to determine whether they will be competent to act as witnesses is challenging, as people with mental retardation rarely appear as witnesses in court.
Suffering with mentally retardation during the pre-natal period was common among cases.
They identified these proteins using an artificial system of increasing fragile X mental retardation protein in the eyes of fruit flies.
There are 701 people with mental retardation or disabilities such as brain injuries incurred between age 18 and 22 or cerebral palsy covered by the Rolland case, according to Larry Tummino, deputy commissioner of the Department of Mental Retardation.
The Virginia Department of Mental Health, Mental Retardation, and Substance Abuse Services is considering both "mental retardation" and "behavioral healthcare" as it prepares to change its name on the orders of the state assembly.
We use the term mental retardation when referring to questionnaire items and students' responses to items, as well as in the results.