rhetoric

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rhetoric:

see oratoryoratory,
the art of swaying an audience by eloquent speech. In ancient Greece and Rome oratory was included under the term rhetoric, which meant the art of composing as well as delivering a speech.
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Rhetoric

 

the study of oratory and prose in general. Rhetoric as an art originated in Greece in the fifth century B.C. and was reduced to a system in the third and second centuries B.C. Roman oratory dates from the first century B.C. The greatest theoreticians of ancient rhetoric were Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintilian.

Classic rhetoric was divided into five parts: invention, arrangement, verbal expression, memorization, and delivery. Invention is the systematization of the contents and proofs of a speech. Arrangement is the division of a speech into the introduction exposition, elaboration—proofs to support one’s own point of view and refutations of the arguments of one’s opponent—and conclusion. Verbal expression is the choice and combination of words, figures of speech, and rhetorical devices and—depending on the use of these elements—the choice of the simple, middle, or high style of speech.

Classical rhetoric, which was oriented primarily toward legal and ceremonial speeches, was studied in the Middle Ages mainly for the purpose of writing letters and sermons. During the Renaissance and the period of classicism, classical rhetoric was brought to bear on all types of prose. In Russia, the classical treatment of this “pervasive” rhetoric was given by M. V. Lomonosov in A Short Handbook on Eloquence (1748). Rhetoric was part of an education in the humanities until the 19th century, when its main component—verbal expression—merged with stylistics as part of the theory of literature and the remaining components lost their practical significance. The word “rhetoric” itself has taken on the offensive connotation of pompous and empty speech.

REFERENCES

Cicero. Tri traktata ob oratorskom iskusstve. Moscow, 1972.
Antichnye teorii iazyka i stilia. Edited by O. Freidenberg. Moscow-Leningrad, 1936.
Lausberg, H. Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik, vols. 1-2. Munich, 1960.
Martin, J. Antike Rhetorik. Munich, 1974.

M. L. GASPAROV

References in periodicals archive ?
His own suggested artistic rhetoric is problematic--not because his requirement that the rhetor have a theoretical and practical understanding of psychology makes the practice of the art of rhetoric virtually impossible but because his account of what constitutes a science of the soul is misleading and ignores the dialogue's own insight into the impossibility of a fixed and final understanding of the soul.
Let us now return to the phenomenon of choice in legal argument and judicial decision-making to see how our lawyer as story-telling rhetor practices legal argument as an art.
The image which emerges from the pertinences and the resonances of Weaver's language is a manly image and it is apparent that, for Weaver, this quality of manliness is the virtue of the noble rhetor.
55) It would seem that the more recent adage "seeing is believing" would have found currency in antiquity, though of a slightly different connotation, as the first century rhetor Quintillian's comments suggest: "The speech will not have its full force, nor will it be in control, as it should, if it is only strong enough to reach the sense of hearing and if the judge thinks the facts are being narrated to him and not displayed in their living truth to the eyes.
Ramsay is behaving as a rhetor would, focusing on persuading an audience to identify with her argument, providing persuasive evidence through the agency of food and conversation.
83) In such a context, the "'exegesis" of Augustine the rhetor will have an important socially productive quality.
Just as the poet or rhetor needed to inflict self-torture in order to generate works of art, the orator or actor needed to inflict pain upon himself in order to generate similar pains or emotions in his listeners.
However, rhetoric scholars who are interested in Douglass as a rhetor need to contextualize the study of his rhetoric within a body of literature about nineteenth-century public address.
More than merely the Roman rhetor Quintilian's "good man
To create the identification with the audience, a rhetor often times names or defines a situation by choosing a particular set of words or vocabulary which serves to help the audience interpret and understand the situation as well as guide their thoughts and actions.
Edwin Black (7) states that "the critic can see in the auditor implied by a discourse a model of what the rhetor would have his real auditor become.
The rheter is a speaker and rhetor is a master in speaking.