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see oratoryoratory,
the art of swaying an audience by eloquent speech. In ancient Greece and Rome oratory was included under the term rhetoric, which meant the art of composing as well as delivering a speech.
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the study of oratory and prose in general. Rhetoric as an art originated in Greece in the fifth century B.C. and was reduced to a system in the third and second centuries B.C. Roman oratory dates from the first century B.C. The greatest theoreticians of ancient rhetoric were Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintilian.

Classic rhetoric was divided into five parts: invention, arrangement, verbal expression, memorization, and delivery. Invention is the systematization of the contents and proofs of a speech. Arrangement is the division of a speech into the introduction exposition, elaboration—proofs to support one’s own point of view and refutations of the arguments of one’s opponent—and conclusion. Verbal expression is the choice and combination of words, figures of speech, and rhetorical devices and—depending on the use of these elements—the choice of the simple, middle, or high style of speech.

Classical rhetoric, which was oriented primarily toward legal and ceremonial speeches, was studied in the Middle Ages mainly for the purpose of writing letters and sermons. During the Renaissance and the period of classicism, classical rhetoric was brought to bear on all types of prose. In Russia, the classical treatment of this “pervasive” rhetoric was given by M. V. Lomonosov in A Short Handbook on Eloquence (1748). Rhetoric was part of an education in the humanities until the 19th century, when its main component—verbal expression—merged with stylistics as part of the theory of literature and the remaining components lost their practical significance. The word “rhetoric” itself has taken on the offensive connotation of pompous and empty speech.


Cicero. Tri traktata ob oratorskom iskusstve. Moscow, 1972.
Antichnye teorii iazyka i stilia. Edited by O. Freidenberg. Moscow-Leningrad, 1936.
Lausberg, H. Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik, vols. 1-2. Munich, 1960.
Martin, J. Antike Rhetorik. Munich, 1974.


References in periodicals archive ?
Since Oliver's (1971) seminal book, Communication and Culture in Ancient India and China, scholars have gradually begun to pay attention to the study of Chinese rhetoric in the communication discipline.
This stance is certainly reflected in the regime's domestic and internationally directed political rhetoric, which, regardless of the level of belligerence, consistently draws attention to the overall context of hostility in relations between North Korea and the United States, South Korea, and Japan.
So long as Western states do not intervene in the reproduction of this powerful political rhetoric rising from Muslim society in Europe, the jihadist terrorists we are now seeing will continue producing this rhetoric.
fassforward, seeing the need to update the world's understanding of rhetoric, created Dirty Rhetoric.
James Arnt Aune, Selling the Free Market: The Rhetoric of Economic Correctness (N.
Not that there never were female voices in Western culture, but in the field of rhetoric, they were not granted equal status.
Though this leaves unexplored substantial portions of the art of rhetoric, Lyne's focus on tropes is not in itself unexpected: Renaissance rhetorics confine themselves ever more exclusively on style at the expense of the other parts of rhetoric, beginning the long process of what Gerard Genette called the "tropological reduction," whereby the art of rhetoric was eventually reduced to a theory of tropes.
Though Vico delivered lectures on the art of persuasion as university professor from 1699 onwards, the subject of rhetoric somehow all but disappeared from his works after 1710.
Law and economics has developed into a school of contemporary legal rhetoric with a particular, effective combination of topics of invention and arrangement and tropes of style that are relevant to legal rhetoric beyond the economic analysis of law.
He briefly surveys the diffusion and reception of classical rhetoric in general (13-32) and in Italy in particular (33-55).
The chapter opens with core concepts such as (1) rhetoric and its use have inherently involved issues of power and social control; (2) rhetoric involves issues of truth and claims of superior knowledge; (3) rhetorical situations are composed of beliefs, values, and assumptions; and (4) the primary structure surrounding organizational rhetoric in the United States has been called the "American System" (pp.