rifampin


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rifampin

(rĭfăm`pĭn), antibioticantibiotic,
any of a variety of substances, usually obtained from microorganisms, that inhibit the growth of or destroy certain other microorganisms. Types of Antibiotics
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 used in the treatment of tuberculosistuberculosis
(TB), contagious, wasting disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary consumption, or phthisis), but the intestines, bones and joints, the skin, and the genitourinary, lymphatic, and
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. It is also used to eliminate the meningococcus microorganism from carriers and to treat leprosyleprosy
or Hansen's disease
, chronic, mildly infectious malady capable of producing, when untreated, various deformities and disfigurements. It is caused by the rod-shaped bacterium Mycobacterium leprae, first described by G.
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, or Hansen's disease. Rifampin, or rifampicin as it was formerly called, acts by inhibiting protein synthesis in sensitive cells. It is a toxic drug whose side effects include flulike symptoms. Because resistant microorganisms emerge during treatment, rifampin is used along with other drugs, e.g., with isoniazidisoniazid
, drug used to treat tuberculosis. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide, isoniazid is the most effective antituberculosis drug currently available. The drug inhibits or kills the tubercle bacilli that cause the disease.
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 and ethambutol for tuberculosis treatment and with dapsone and clofazimine in the treatment of leprosy.
References in periodicals archive ?
After the initial 2 months of intensive phase therapy, she was switched to INH 300 mg/d and rifampin 450 mg/d for the continuation phase.
11) In two randomized, controlled trials, ciprofloxacin was the quinolone used, combined with doxycycline (12) or rifampin (13); the results were similar between the quinolone and the non-quinolone groups.
This exclusion resulted in 387 pulmonary TB patients, of whom 262 did not have Xpert testing (100% for 2009, 84% for 2010, 45% for 2011, and 39% for 2012), 110 had rifampin-resistant TB by Xpert, and 15 had negative results for rifampin-resistant TB by Xpert (11 in which TB was not detected, 3 in which rifampin resistance was not detected, and 1 in which rifampin sensitivity was not determined).
Notably, LTBI treatment completion rates among health care workers rose by 26% between 2013, when most prescriptions were for rifampin or INH monotherapy, and 2014, when most were for rifapentine plus INH.
When compared with conventional AST the method appears to work well for detecting resistance to isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and streptomycin.
1 month of daily rifampin 600 mg and daily ofloxacin 400 mg (supervised).
Although culture sensitivities officially reported rifampin resistance, rifampin was continued because only partial resistance was demonstrated by cultures.
Immunological responsiveness of tuberculosis patients receiving rifampin.
An overlooked finding in the same study of treatment of latent LTBI in mice was that rifampin alone for 2 months was equally efficacious as 2RZ, or 2 months of rifampin plus-INH (26).
The addition of gentamicin or rifampin is not recommended in MRSA bacteremia or native valve endocarditis treatment.
The fastest response was seen with rifampin monotherapy at 15-20 mg/kg per day (Clin.