rinderpest


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rinderpest

or

cattle plague,

an acute and highly infectious viral disease of cattle. It less frequently affects other ruminants, such as sheep, goats, and wild game. After an incubation period of three to nine days, a wide variety of symptoms may appear, including fever, inflammation of the mucous membranes, particularly the intestines, discharges from the eyes and nose, dehydration, and skin eruptions on the back and flanks. Death comes after four to eight days. Long dreaded in Eurasia because of its ability to kill entire populations of cattle, it was accidentally introduced into Africa in the late 19th cent.

Rinderpest was long controlled largely by destroying infected animals, but an effective and economical vaccine was developed in the 1950s and 60s by British veterinary scientist Walter Plowright. By the 1980s, rinderpest occurred primarily in N and E Africa and SW and S Asia as a result of eradication efforts. A global eradication program was begun in 1994 by the Food and Agriculture Organization, which confirmed in 2011 that the disease had been eradicated worldwide.

rinderpest

[′rin·dər‚pest]
(veterinary medicine)
An acute, contagious, and often fatal virus disease of cattle, sheep, and goats which is characterized by fever and the appearance of ulcers on the mucous membranes of the intestinal tract.
References in periodicals archive ?
Indeed it was this near-dependence of the transport sector on ox-wagon transport that facilitated the rapid spread of the rinderpest once it had crossed the Zambesi.
Differentiation of rinderpest and peste des petitsruminants viruses using specific cDNA clones.
2 million (Serneels and Lambin 2001a) as a result of the rinderpest release, which reduced the vulnerability of grazing ungulates to the disease.
Detection and differentiation of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses in diagnostic and experimental samples by polymerase chain reaction using P and F gene-specific primers.
The measles virus probably descended from the ancestors of the modern canine distemper and/or rinderpest viruses, a process which may be dated back to the Epipalaeolithic Age (approximately 10 000 BC), when man started domesticating dogs and cattle in the Middle East.
Yet the dramaturgy of death depicted by Stannard highlights how generational relations hinged on norms of emotional avoidance and beliefs in evil pollution, crucial undercurrents affecting Zulu responses to the 1890s rinderpest epizootic, the first of three lethal epidemics sketched below.
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), that oversees the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme sent veterinarian Dr William Taylor to assess compliance towards the Office Internationale des Epizooties (OIE) protocol.
For example, fears of contagion focused on sleeping sickness, to which many wild species were immune, and on rinderpest or cattle plague, which had demonstrably been introduced to both India and Africa by European cattle, subsequently decimating indigenous bovines, deer, and antelopes.
In fact, Horn recently told a group of terrorism experts that world livestock is vulnerable to a host of debilitating ailments, including rinderpest, lumpy skin disease, bluetongue virus, and African horse-sickness.
Are we to build "cattle" dips for the buffalo and wildebeest, the carriers of some of the most deadly stock diseases such as East Coast Fever (buffalo), Anthrax (buffalo and all warm-blooded animals), Rinderpest (buffalo and other wild fauna), Foot and Mouth disease (nearly all ruminants), the lethal Malignant Catarrh (Wildebeest) and Trypanosomiasis (nearly all wild animals)?
It contains numerous fascinating examples of invasions, like classic studies on starlings, muskrat, house finch, gypsy moth, cheatgrass, rinderpest, etc.
Effective 1 January 1927, the directive banned the importation of fresh or frozen meat from "any region" in which either Foot-and-Mouth Disease or Rinderpest existed.