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Rings(religion, spiritualism, and occult)
Since it is without beginning or end, the ring is a symbol of eternity. As a microcosmic magical circle, it also represents protection. The gold rings excavated from Egyptian tombs—signet rings inscribed with the names of the gods and with prayers to these gods—had both utilitarian and magical functions.
The earliest rings were made of iron, which was regarded as a magical metal. As G. Storms says, "Iron manifestly takes its power from the fact that the material was better and scarcer than wood or stone for making tools, and secondly from the mysterious way it was originally found: in meteoric stones. It needed a specialist and a skilled laborer to obtain the iron from the ore and to harden it. Indeed we find many peoples regard their blacksmiths as magicians."
The British Museum contains a bronze Greco-Roman ring set with an amethyst, designed as a charm against the evil eye. The Romans saw the iron ring as a symbol of strength. Victorious generals were presented with iron rings. It wasn't until the end of the third century CE that the Romans generally accepted gold rings, due to the influence of neighboring peoples. The iron ring became less popular, and eventually became the mark of a slave. Freedmen—as opposed to those born free—were a level above slaves, and were allowed to wear silver rings.
The magic ring of the Germanic god Odin was named Draupnir, the name of the dwarf who made it. Odin placed the ring on the funeral pyre of his son Balder.
Many talismanic rings, believed to have the power to heal, are associated with noble families in Britain and other parts of Europe. King Edward II (1307-1327) had a ring that was supposed to cure the "falling sickness." In Trôyes, France, in 1263, officials passed a statute decreeing that nuns could not wear rings set with precious stones except in cases of illness. Certain stones became associated with specific illnesses and ailments. In some cases, patients drank from a goblet of wine or water into which a ring had been dropped.
Rings were engraved with particular designs for specific purposes: to guard against evil, to bring knowledge of herbs, to cause invisibility, or to promote good health. Ceremonial magic involves a long and intricate ritual to prepare and consecrate a ring. The ring must be made, engraved, and consecrated at particular times, according to the hours and days of various spirits and planets. Such rings are still made and worn today.