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identification,in psychology: see defense mechanismdefense mechanism,
in psychoanalysis, any of a variety of unconscious personality reactions which the ego uses to protect the conscious mind from threatening feelings and perceptions.
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identificationthe copying of another's behaviour closely with the desire to be as much like that person as possible.
The concept owes much to FREUD's notion of the resolution of the OEDIPUS COMPLEX through identification with the same-sex parent. This process leads to the internalization of the parent's moral values and the formation of the SUPEREGO.
The use is not always so strict. Identification is commonly used to describe a fleeting feeling of empathy with another person. See also IMITATION.
the recognition of identity, the establishment of the identity of objects.
Criminalistics. Identification is the process of establishing the identity of a specific object or individual through the comparative investigation of the totality of general and particular characteristics for purposes of securing legal evidence. Depending on the subject, object, and method of identification, distinctions are made among investigative, criminal-record, and expert identification.
In investigative, expert, and judicial practice considerable importance is accorded to methods of identifying individuals according to handwriting, physical features, and impressions of hands, feet, and teeth. Equally important are methods of identification of seals, stamps, and typewriters according to their impressions; of weapons according to fired bullets and cartridges; of footwear according to its tracks; of instruments and tools for breaking and entering according to the traces of breakage; of transportation of vehicles according to traces of the tread and of the wheels; and of a whole through the matching of its parts (for example, the parts of a broken automobile headlight, of a torn document).
The results of criminalistic investigation must be expressed in procedural acts having legal force or they will not be admissible as evidence. Presentations for identification and examination by experts are acts of such a nature.
REFERENCESTerziev, N. V. Identifikatsiia i opredelenie rodovoi (gruppowi) prinadlezhnosti. Moscow, 1961.
Belkin. R. S., and A. I. Vinberg. Kriminalistika i dokazyvanie. Moscow, 1969.
Koldin, V. Ia. Identifikatsiia i ee roT v ustanovlenii istiny po ugolovnymdelam. Moscow, 1969.
A. I. VINBERG
Psychology and sociology. Identification is the process of emotional and other forms of self-identification of an individual with another person, group, or model and the formation and discovery of individual identity (individuality). The term “identification” was introduced by S. Freud. Identification of the child with either the father or the mother generally serves as the model of identification in psychoanalytic literature. In sociology and social psychology the term has acquired a broader meaning, signifying, on one hand, imitation and imitative behavior and, on the other (particularly in personality research), emotional merging with an object and deep internalization of a norm or pattern of behavior.
Mathematics, technology, and related disciplines. Identification is widely used in mathematics and technology. In algorithmic languages, for example, identification symbols are used to identify operations; in coin machines coins are identified according to mass and shape. Basic tasks of identification include recognition of patterns, formation of analogies and generalizations and their classification, and analysis of sign systems. Identification establishes the correspondence between an object to be recognized and its model—an object called an identifier. As a rule, identifiers are signs for mutually corresponding objects. Identical objects are considered to be equivalent, that is, of identical meaning and significance.
REFERENCESZinov’ev, A. A. Osnovy logicheskoi teorii nauchnykh znanii. Moscow, 1967.
Bongard, M. M. Problemy uznavaniia. Moscow, 1967.
Chemistry. Identification is the determination of the composition and structure of an unknown compound by comparing the results of analysis, as well as the physical and chemical properties of the compound, with corresponding properties of a known compound. The identity of the unknown compound being examined with the known compound is established by the equivalence of all indexes.
REFERENCESVeibel, S. Identifikatsiia organicheskikh soedinenii. Moscow, 1957. (Translated from English.)
Ewing, G. W. Instrumental’nye metody khimicheskogo analiza. Moscow, 1963. (Translated from English.)
or presentation for identification, an investigatory action whose purpose is to give a witness—such as a victim, a suspect, or a defendant—an opportunity to recognize from among a group of persons or things the object or person either observed by the witness in connection with a crime that has been committed or known to the witness beforehand. The witness is interrogated ahead of time concerning the circumstances in which he saw the particular person or object, what factors have made it harder or easier to remember, and what features enable him to identify it. For greater reliability, the persons or objects in question or their photographs are presented to the witness grouped with similar objects. Attesting witnesses must be present during an identification. The conduct of the identification and its results are recorded in a document that can be used as evidence in a criminal case. Soviet legislation regarding criminal procedure regulates the manner in which identifications are to be conducted, as in Articles 164–166 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the RSFSR.
What does it mean when you dream about identification?
The state of one’s self-confidence can be symbolized by the form of identification one has in a dream. A lost or stolen wallet, driver’s license, or passport may suggest confusion about the dreamer’s self-identity or self-confidence.
ii. Visual recognition of an aircraft type.
iii. Indicating identity with an identification light.