river blindness


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river blindness

or

onchocerciasis,

disease caused by the parasitic nematode worm Onchocerca volvulus. The worm larvae are transmitted by the bites of blackflies (genus Simulium) that live in fast moving streams. Inside the body the worms form disfiguring skin nodules, where they mate. Their tiny larvae, or microfilariae, migrate through the skin, causing severe itching. If the infection reaches the area of the eye, allergic reaction to the microfilariae can cause blindness.

Tests can now detect infestation before the disease has progressed, and the new drugs ivermectin, which kills the larvae, and amocarzine, which kills adult forms, have begun to help control the disease. Blackfly eradication programs have had limited success because the flies can quickly develop resistance to pesticides.

River blindness, which occurs primarily in Africa, Central and South America, and Yemen, affects an estimated 18 million people. In Africa, two strains have been identified, a savanna strain and a forest strain. The forest strain does not usually lead to blindness, but it does cause severe skin symptoms (lesions, itching, discoloration, change in texture) that can result in social ostracism.

References in periodicals archive ?
Through the MDP and its partners, including endemic countries, NGOs, the WHO, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the Department for International Development (DFID) and other donors and implementation organizations, more than 250 million people in 32 countries are reached each year for river blindness and LF.
The Fund is supported by in-kind contributions from GlaxoSmithKline plc, which will donate albendazole treatments over the next ten years to eliminate lymphatic filariasis and deworm school-age children in target countries, and MSD, which will donate ivermectin to eliminate lymphatic filariasis and river blindness through the Mectizan Donation Program, with co-investments from the UK Department for International Development (DfID) and United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
But such was not the case: 30 years later, in 2017, river blindness rages on across the world, afflicting as many as (https://www.
River Blindness, scientifically called onchocerciasis, is a skin and eye disease transmitted by Onchocerca volvulus, a parasite that can cause permanent blindness.
Grants will be given to support activities focused on the elimination of river blindness or LF, and will be offered to partner NGOs who are directly involved in the distribution of MECTIZAN.
People with river blindness infections have to take the drug once or twice a year for up to 18 years for a full cure.
In river blindness you may have seen the image of a young child leading a blind father, mother, grandfather or grandmother on a stick.
River blindness, or onchocerciasis, is caused by parasitic roundworms.
Diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and river blindness were not making the cut, since neither their sufferers nor their states had the resources to pay for expensive would-be drugs.
The serious side effects of Loa loa and the difficulty of rapidly quantifying Loa levels in patients before treatment make it too risky to broadly administer IVM, representing a major setback in the efforts to eradicate river blindness and elephantiasis.
The US former President pointed out that his visit to Sudan comes in the context of the health programs concerning combating Guinean Worm , river blindness and trachoma diseases besides following up training of health cadres in Sudan .
Colombia has become the first nation to eliminate onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, according to the World Health Organization.