To the best of our knowledge, Cultural Efficacy and rumination
have not yet been examined together, however, cultural differences in rumination
have been found.
Thus, regret usually follows a decision-making fault, whether real or imaginary, whereas rumination
is a compulsive, repetitive thinking over of a negative experience.
Feeding behavior: time spent feeding (Feeding), ruminating (Rumination
), and performing other activities (Other activities); total chewing time (TCT); number of feeding periods (NFP), rumination
periods (NRP), and periods performing other activities (NOP); time per feeding period (TFP), per rumination
period (TRP), and per period performing other activities (TOP); number of chews per ruminated bolus (RChC); chewing speed (ChS); time per chew (ChT); number of rumination
chews per day (RChD); number of cuds ruminated per day (CRD); feed efficiency of dry matter ([FE.
In their study, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the Stanford scientists examined whether a nature walk could reduce rumination
in 38 mentally healthy, city-dwelling people.
Based on Response Styles theory (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1987; Nolen-Hoeksema, Wisco, & Lyubomirsky, 2008; Treynor, Gonzalez, & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2003), rumination
is a method of coping that involves self-reflection and repetitive focus on one's negative emotions (Lyubomirsky & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1993; Morrow & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1990; Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991, 2011).
As total rumination
time is influenced by rumen fill, it was to expect that results from Control group would be higher.
Step-wise regression analysis indicate that self-judgment, isolation, over- identification and common humanity significantly predicted rumination
was firstly adverted theoretically in the Response Styles Theory (RST) by (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991); she defined rumination
as a manner of reaction to distress that involves continually and inactively focusing on indications of distress and on the probable conditions and results of these indications (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2008, p.
This paper adds to the existing literature that happier people may be less vulnerable to the development of rumination
, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress in the context of large scale disasters.
The measure has a three-factor structure consisting of affective (10 items), cognitive (11 items), and behavioral (10 items) elements: Angry rumination
("I keep thinking about events that angered me for a long time"), Revenge planning ("When somebody offends me, sooner or later, I retaliate"), and Behavioral displaced aggression ("If someone made me angry, I would likely vent my anger on another person").
Teens such as Karla and Devin have the illusion that their rumination
is somehow helpful.
Participants who went on a 90-minute walk through a natural environment reported lower levels of rumination
and showed reduced neural activity in the subgenual prefrontal cortex, an area of the brain linked to risk for mental illness, compared with those who walked through an urban environment.