ruthenium


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ruthenium

(ro͞othē`nēəm), metallic chemical element; symbol Ru; at. no. 44; at. wt. 101.07; m.p. about 2,310°C;; b.p. about 3,900°C;; sp. gr. 12.41 at 20°C;; valence commonly +2, +3, +4, +6, or +8. Ruthenium is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal with a close-packed hexagonal crystalline structure. It is found directly above osmium in Group 8 of the periodic tableperiodic table,
chart of the elements arranged according to the periodic law discovered by Dmitri I. Mendeleev and revised by Henry G. J. Moseley. In the periodic table the elements are arranged in columns and rows according to increasing atomic number (see the table entitled
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. Below about 100°C; ruthenium is insoluble in acids, including aqua regia, but reacts violently if potassium chlorate is added. It reacts with the halogens and with fused alkali hydroxides. When heated above 800°C; it oxidizes, but it does not react with air at room temperature. It forms compounds with silicon and sulfur. Its compounds resemble those of osmium. Ruthenium is found in nature with other metals of the so-called platinum group in river sands, in minerals such as laurite (the sulfide) and osmiridium, and in association with certain ores containing platinum, copper, and nickel. It is obtained commercially as a byproduct of the refining of nickel sulfide ores mined near Sudbury, Ont., Canada. Ruthenium metal powder is obtained as the final product of a complex chemical process. It is used as a catalyst in hydrogenation, isomerization, nitrogenation, oxidation, and reforming reactions. The metal is used as a hardener in electrical contact alloys and filaments, in jewelry, in pen nibs, and in instrument pivots. It is usually alloyed with other metals. It is a very good hardener for palladium and platinum, and vastly improves the corrosion resistance of titanium when added in small amounts. It is also used in alloys with cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten, and other metals. Ruthenium compounds are used to color ceramics and glass. Ruthenium was discovered in 1827 in an impure form by G. W. Osann in residues of crude platinum ores from the Ural Mts. of Russia. Pure ruthenium was first prepared by K. K. Klaus in 1845; he showed that Osann's sample contained at least one other metal.

ruthenium

[rü′thē·nē·əm]
(chemistry)
A chemical element, symbol Ru, atomic number 44, atomic weight 101.07.
(metallurgy)
A hard, brittle, grayish-white metal used as a catalyst; workable only at high temperatures.

ruthenium

a hard brittle white element of the platinum metal group. It occurs free with other platinum metals in pentlandite and other ores and is used to harden platinum and palladium. Symbol: Ru; atomic no.: 44; atomic wt.: 101.07; valency: 0--8; relative density: 12.41; melting pt.: 2334?C; boiling pt.: 4150?C
References in periodicals archive ?
The initial studies commenced on the oxidative coupling of two N-aryl (N-Phenyl and N- paramethoxyphenyl) tetrahydroisoquinolines 1and1a as the model substrates with CuCN employing the ruthenium tris-(bipyridine) chloride as photocatalyst under mild and aerobic reaction conditions reported by Rueping and co- workers [22].
Density functional characterization of N-2 dissociation on the step of ruthenium clusters.
Therrien, "Cellular delivery of pyrenyl-arene ruthenium complexes by a water-soluble arene ruthenium metalla-cage," Dalton Transactions, vol.
Because the ruthenium precursor successfully developed here has a high vapor pressure and easily vaporizes, it is possible to sufficiently supply the necessary precursor gas on the base material when forming a film.
In the double-layer structure, the optical substrate--glass or optical polymer--was coated with a primary layer containing the oxygen sensitive ruthenium complex, and a secondary layer containing the enzyme glucose oxidase (Fig.
Ruthenium is set to achieve better results in cancers that can already be treated.
Actually ruthenium has very similar reactions: it colours the solution with tannic acid bluish green and reduces with ethyl alcohol as well as with zinc forming a black precipitate.
The Series Ruthenium contact layers provide long-life switching at a variety of loads.
We next examined the effects on sea urchin sperm of ruthenium red, a potent inhibitor of ryanodine-sensitive channel activity (6-8).
That only a few atoms could have such a dramatic impact caused scientists to refer to the ruthenium layer informally as "Pixie Dust.
According to the company the size reduction and increased storage have been made possible by the use of Pixie Dust media technology which uses a three atom thick layer of ruthenium sandwiched between magnetic layers.
IBM has started making them with a thin layer of ruthenium atoms in the platter.