saponin


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to saponin: tannin

saponin:

see soap plantsoap plant,
any of various plants having cleansing properties. A few are of commercial importance, but most soap plants are used locally, as in early times, for toilet and laundry purposes.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Saponin

 

any of the complex organic nonnitrogenous compounds of the plant glycoside group. Upon acid or enzymatic hydrolysis, saponins are split into monosaccharides (one or several molecules) and a noncarbohydrate part called the aglycon (sapogenin). Depending on the chemical structure of the aglycon, a distinction is made between triterpenoid saponins, in which the aglycons are triterpenoids, and steroid saponins, in which the aglycons are steroids. Uronic acids may also be components of saponins.

Saponins are found mainly in plants (in the Rosaceae, Caryo-phyllaceae, and Sapindaceae families) and in certain marine animals (starfish and holothurians). Saponins are characterized by the capacity to give, like soaps, collodial solutions that readily form foams. With phenols and higher alcohols, for example, sterols, saponins form stable molecular compounds that are used for the separation, purification, and quantitative determination of saponins themselves and such sterols as cholesterol.

Saponins have a bitter, sharp taste. Upon intravenous injection, they are highly toxic; extremely low concentrations lead to the destruction of erythrocytes (hemolysis). However, saponins are not toxic upon ingestion because they either are not absorbed or else are destroyed in the intestines.

Steroid saponins are used as an inexpensive raw material for the production of steroid hormones. As foaming agents, saponins are used in charging foam fire extinguishers and in the production of soft drinks and beer. Saponins are contained in many medicinal plants (soapbark, licorice, jalap, senega root), which are used as expectorants and diuretics. Espin and other saponins of the horse chestnut, as well as aralosides from the Japanese angelica tree, have a cardiotonic effect.

REFERENCES

Lekarstvennye sredstva iz rastenii. Edited by A. D. Turova. Moscow, 1962.
Fieser, L., and M. Fieser. Steroidy. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from English.) T. V. Iliukhina

saponin

[′sap·ə·nən]
(organic chemistry)
Any of numerous plant glycosides characterized by foaming in water and by producing hemolysis when water solutions are injected into the bloodstream; used as beverage foam producer, textile detergent and sizing, soap substitute, and emulsifier.
References in periodicals archive ?
Effect of tea saponin on methanogenesis, microbial community structure and expression of mcrA gene, in cultures of rumen micro-organisms.
Similar antipyretic evaluation procedure was adopted for the crude saponin using three dose levels: 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg of crude saponin; and for the Va-SB also, using 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg of the chromatographic fraction, Va-SB as test doses.
The fish were fed 3% of their body weight, with feed containing crude Azadirachta saponins at 1.
In nature, the saponins are produced in the stem, seed, roots, leaves, or fruit of plants belonging to more than 100 different families, including Allianceae, Caryophyllaceae, Rosaceae, and Gramineae (of which corn and switchgrass are both members).
Saponin is also sold to pharmaceutical companies as an emulsifier or binding substance, which adds economic value.
The saponin extract effect in lowering the blood glucose levels was compared to that of standard drug which was Daonil.
Saponin can be used to enhance the transmission of molecules through biological cell membranes Experts believe the would-be purchasers planned to mix it with ricin or other toxins to cause poisoning by smearing it in public places.
They also recommended the inclusion of a cell-lysing agent in extraction diluents, noting that saponin (100 mg/L) could substantially increase WBF yields, depending on hemolysate pH (1).
A family of triterpene saponin, commonly referred to as ginsenoisides, is thought to be the active component in ginseng.
Containing Saponin, a natural detergent, Soap Nuts react in water to form a soapy froth creating a safe and eco-friendly way to wash all types of clothing.