sarcoma


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Related to sarcoma: Kaposi Sarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, Soft tissue sarcoma, Synovial sarcoma

sarcoma

(särkō`mə), highly malignant tumor arising in connective- and muscle-cell tissue. It is the result of oncogenes (the cancer causing genes of some viruses) and proto-oncogenes (cancer causing genes in human cells). It may affect bone, cartilage, blood vessels, lymph nodes, and skin. See cancercancer,
in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms that limit cell growth.
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; neoplasmneoplasm
or tumor,
tissue composed of cells that grow in an abnormal way. Normal tissue is growth-limited, i.e., cell reproduction is equal to cell death. Feedback controls limit cell division after a certain number of cells have developed, allowing for tissue repair
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.

Sarcoma

 

a malignant tumor that consists of connective tissue. Mesenchymomas, which are sarcomas made up of embryonic connective tissue (mesenchyma), are distinguished from sarcomas made up of mature tissues of mesenchymal origin, for example, bone sarcomas (osteosarcomas), cartilaginous sarcomas (chondrosarcomas), vascular sarcomas (angiosarcomas), hematopoietic sarcomas (reticulosarcomas), muscular sarcomas (leiomyosarcomas, rhabdosarcomas), and sarcomas of skeletal nerve tissue (gliosarcomas).

Sarcomas constitute about 10 percent of all malignant tumors; they occur relatively more often in some African and Asian countries. The most common sarcomas are bone tumors and tumors of soft tissues, including muscular, vascular, and nerve tissues. Sarcomas of the hematopoietic organs occur less frequently. Histomorphologically, there are round-cell, polymorphocellular (sometimes giant-cell), and spindle-cell sarcomas, all of which differ in the shape and size of the cells, and fibrosarcomas, in which fibrous elements predominate over cellular elements.

All malignant tumors are characterized by growing into and destroying surrounding tissues; this property is especially pronounced in sarcomas. The early stages of cancers differ from the early stages of sarcomas; cancers metastasize to the nearest lymph nodes, while sarcomas usually spread by way of the bloodstream and frequently metastasize to remote organs.

The principles and methods of diagnosis, preventive measures, and treatment of sarcomas are the same as those used for other malignant tumors.

REFERENCE

Klinicheskaia onkologiia. Edited by N. N. Blokhin and B. E. Peterson, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1971.

L. M. SHABAD

sarcoma

[sär′kō·mə]
(medicine)
A malignant tumor arising in connective tissue and composed principally of anaplastic cells that resemble those of supportive tissues.

sarcoma

Pathol a usually malignant tumour arising from connective tissue
References in periodicals archive ?
These findings were consistent with the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma.
Lead Author: Shreyaskumar Patel, MD, Department of Sarcoma Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.
As clinicians treating soft tissue sarcoma, we have waited for further treatment options which can prolong survival in patients living with these aggressive and hard to treat cancers.
Of 10,083 patients who underwent such hysterectomies at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center hospitals during the study period, 9 were found to have uterine sarcoma (overall rate of 8.
They were joined by guest rider Trevor Robson - dad of Jessica, who died aged 18 last May from a rare cancer called alveolar soft part sarcoma.
Study 309 was a randomized, open-label, multicenter, Phase III study comparing the efficacy and safety of eribulin versus dacarbazine in 452 patients (aged 18 or over) with locally advanced or recurrent and metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (one of two subtypes: adipocytic or leiomyosarcoma) who have disease progression following standard therapies which must have included an anthracycline and at least one other additional regimen.
It is a huge milestone for us but we will continue to fundraise for Sarcoma UK.
These results were consistent with a diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma.
Histology of the mass and the left tonsil revealed epithelioid and sarcomatoid elements consistent with a biphasic tumor and a diagnosis of synovial sarcoma (figure 3).
Synovial sarcoma is graded using the widely accepted grading scheme for all sarcomas, the FNCLCC (French Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer) scheme, which uses a combined score from 3 separate parameters, including degree of differentiation, mitotic activity, and necrosis.
2] After all other potential mimics had been ruled out by immunohistochemical staining, the final diagnosis was a pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma/undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of soft tissue tumours.
Tony met a group of patients at Everton's training ground, Finch Farm, who had been successfully treated after detecting their sarcoma early.