Skald

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Skald

 

a Norwegian or Icelandic poet of the ninth through 13th centuries. The poetry of the skalds has survived as fragments in the 13th-century Icelandic literary classics the Prose Edda and the sagas. Before being written down, Skaldic poetry existed in oral tradition. The poetry of about 250 skalds is known. The earliest skalds were Norwegians. The most famous skald was the Icelander Egill Skallagrímsson (tenth century).

The skalds composed eulogistic, derogatory, and occasional verse. Their poetry generally set down contemporary facts and hence is regarded as a reliable historical source. For mannered intricacy of form, skaldic poetry is without parallel in world literature. The meter is strict and complex and the language abounds in complicated periphrases (kennings) and poetic synonyms (heitis); phrases are intertwined with one another. Skaldic poetry is difficult to interpret.

WORKS

Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning, 1A-2A (manuscript text); 1B-2B (corrected text with Danish translation). Edited by F. Jónsson. Copenhagen, 1908-15.

REFERENCES

Steblin-Kamenskii, M. I. “Proiskhozhdenie poezii skal’dov.” In Skandinavskii sbornik, fasc. 3. Tallinn, 1958.
De Vries, J. Altnordische Literaturgeschichte, 2nd ed., vols. 1-2. Berlin, 1964-67.

M. I. STEBLIN-KAMENSKII [23–1462–]

References in periodicals archive ?
Nearly three quarters of the children were under the age of five, with most burn or scald injuries occurring in one-year-olds and all injuries were sustained at home.
In a matter of seconds you can become a victim of a life-changing scald," says Molly Hall, director of the Energy Education Council's Safe Electricity program.
Depending on the severity of the burn or scald, see your GP or go to a minor injuries unit or accident and emergency department.
However, evidence indicates that the vegetation was present prior to the development of salinity, as described in more detail below, with subsequent outbreaks of salinity resulting in the death of vegetation and the establishment of the scalds.
Coroner Michael Sheffield, recording an open verdict, said: "I accept that the scalds had healed, but the scalding may just have aggravated his already existing natural problems.
Some tips to prevent scalds in the kitchen include testing heated food and liquids before serving children and keeping young children away from cooking and sink areas when in use.
Scalds are more likely to happen when a child climbs or falls into a bath of hot water or a brother or sister runs the hot tap when a younger child is in the bath.
Professor Alison Kemp will head the team from the Cardiff Child Protection Systematic Reviews group based in the University's School of Medicine to find new ways to better prevent childhood burns and scalds and the pain and suffering that affects these children.
Homes are the sites of thousands of burn injuries to children every year, including scalds and fire-related injuries.
He suffered 20 per cent scalds to his legs after hot water was spilled on him.
RoSPA head of home injury prevention Dawn D'Caccia said figures showed burns and scalds are a serious issue among children.
The most common causes of accidents and accidental death are heat injuries such as burns and scalds, inhalation and ingestion, including choking or poisoning, and impact injuries such as a trip or fall.