The thickness and depth of the structures overlying scalenus anterior are clearly demonstrated by transverse E12 plastinated slices (Figure 3).
Having considered the topographical anatomy of scalenus anterior in the posterior triangle, we can now reflect on our ability to locate, palpate, or record EMG activity in this muscle using surface electrodes.
When the location of scalenus anterior is considered, palpation no longer appears straightforward.
Some authors identify scalenus anterior with palpation during resisted neck flexion (Falla et al 2002a) or with the neck laterally flexed to the opposite side (Gross et al 2002).
Recording EMG activity in scalenus anterior using surface electrodes appears even more complex than palpation.
The topographical location of scalenus anterior was found to be deep and low in the root of the neck, underneath the clavicular head of SCM.
Cervical rib: a method of anterior approach for relief of symptoms by division of the scalenus anticus.
Neuritis of the brachial plexus mechanical in origin: the scalenus syndrome.
Costoclavicular compression of the subclavian artery and vein: relation to scalenus syndrome.