In particular, the scattering loss
due to surface roughness of copper foil is examined in detail and the efficacy of copper foil with low surface roughness demonstrated.
This is caused by a grain boundary which induces a refractive index of non-homogeneity in the material and thus causes scattering loss.
The result of SPC is a smooth surface roughness that contributes to lower scattering loss at a waveguide's surface.
Both the absorption loss and process-induced scattering loss
are very low when compared with the total loss.
4]), which partially accounts for the reason the apparent absorbance is higher at lower wavelength, a fact that the absorbance change is mainly due to the scattering loss of light intensity.
If the total scattering loss is governed by the two phase invariance, then the total scattering should peak at 50/50 volume ratio of amorphous to crystalline content.
Summary: GaAs-based high efficiency edge-emitting lasers and low-loss passive ridge waveguides are demonstrated using a novel, self-aligned fabrication process, potentially enabling high-indexcontrast integrated optoelectronics for ultra-low scattering loss
ring resonators and other integrated photonics applications.
NEL has realized the world's first AWG with ultra low-loss characteristics--with a maximum loss of 2dB--by developing special dry etching techniques to reduce internal scattering loss.
Conventional AWG contains discontinuous connections that tend to increase scattering loss.