scintillation

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scintillation

(sin-tă-lay -shŏn) (twinkling) Rapid irregular variations in the brightness of light received from celestial objects, noticeably stars, produced as the light passes through the Earth's atmosphere: irregularities in the atmosphere's refractive index occur in small mobile regions and can cause the direction of the light to change very slightly during its passage. In a telescope a star image will consequently wander rapidly about its mean position, producing an overall blurred enlarged image. With extended light sources, such as the planets, scintillation produces a hazy outline in a telescopic image. For stars near the horizon, where refraction effects including dispersion are much greater, changes in color can also be observed. See also scattering; speckle interferometry.

Scintillation

 

a brief (~10–4–10–9 sec) flash of light that occurs in a scintillator under the action of ionizing radiation. Scintillations were first visually observed by W. Crookes in 1903, when he irradiated a zinc sulfide screen with alpha particles.

The energy of the charged particles that is absorbed by the scintillator causes the atoms or molecules of the scintillator to undergo a transition to an excited state. The subsequent transition from the excited state back to the normal state is accompanied by the emission of light—that is, by a scintillation. The scintillation mechanism, the spectrum of the scintillation radiation, and the emission time depend on the nature of the luminescent substance. The brightness of the scintillation depends on the nature of the charged particles and on the energy given up by the particle during its passage through the substance. For example, scintillations produced by alpha particles and protons are considerably brighter than scintillations produced by beta particles. Each scintillation is produced by a single particle. This fact is made use of in scintillation counters for the detection of elementary particles.

scintillation

[‚sint·əl′ā·shən]
(electromagnetism)
A rapid apparent displacement of a target indication from its mean position on a radar display; one cause is shifting of the effective reflection point on the target. Also known as target glint; target scintillation; wander.
Random fluctuation, in radio propagation, of the received field about its mean value, the deviations usually being relatively small.
(lapidary)
The flashing, twinkling, or sparkling of light, or the alternating display of reflections, from the polished facets of a gemstone.
(nucleonics)
A flash of light produced in a phosphor by an ionizing particle or photon.
(optics)
Rapid changes of brightness of stars or other distant, celestial objects caused by variations in the density of the air through which the light passes.
Rapid changes in the values of irradiance over the cross section of a laser beam.
References in periodicals archive ?
Taking into account energy conservation, the scintillation and storage luminescence should be complementarily related to each other.
sc] is the scintillation light yield, E the deposited energy of ionizing radiation, [beta] the constant parameter, [E.
Keywords: Network Coded Cooperation, Deep Space Networks, Solar Scintillation, Rayleigh Fading Channels, Rician Fading Channels, Outage Probability.
For disruptive effects on DSNs, solar scintillation is a major problem which should be considered in a DSN scenario.
Inner-scale size effect on the scintillations of light in the turbulent atmosphere," J.
This phenomenon is called interplanetary scintillation (IPS), and has long been used since its discovery as an effective tool for probing the solar wind plasma.
For example, monitoring is helpful in distinguishing ionospheric scintillations from a flock of birds roosting on or near a receiving antenna.
In 1919, when nitrogen was introduced into the cylinder, occasional bright scintillations like those of protons were produced.
Each neutron capture event produces a scintillation pulse; the scintillation rate thus becomes a measure of the angle between the polarization vectors.
In fact, she says, the day side of the Martian ionosphere may show such scintillations all the time.
Illumination of rain at night reveals scintillations in the light reflected from the falling drops," says Beard, " with the drops often appearing as dashed streaks.
The electron calorimeter will use a material in which the particles manifest their presence by producing scintillations of light.