The Rumba and lowermost Velise formations are characterized by a rather low chitinozoan/scolecodont
ratio, ca 10 or less vesicles per scolecodont
(but note how the scolecodonts
Only a few very poorly preserved (unidentifiable) chitinozoan and scolecodont
remains were found.
It is interesting to note that two benthic groups, brachiopods and polychaetes, show reversed diversity patterns: a low-diversity brachiopod fauna is associated with a high-diversity scolecodont
assemblage, suggesting that the bottom environments were indeed more suitable for vagile benthos than sessile filtrators.
Conodont and chitinozoan biozonation and scolecodont
distribution in the Paatsalu section is described in O.
The most common scolecodont
species were polychaetaspids, paulinitids, and mochtyellids.
At some levels in the uppermost Vormsi Stage, Atraktoprion and Protarabellites also make up a significant part of the scolecodont
65 1077 1038 1014 999 Acritarchs + + + + + + Chitinozoans + + + + + Graptolites + + Scolecodonts
+ Caldariola glabra glabra + Cymatiogalea deunffii + Cymatiogalea messaoudensis Cymatiogalea velifera + cf.
Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, orbicules, dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts
, together with particulate organic matter (POM) found in sedimentary rocks and sediments (Jansonius and McGregor 1996).
In Costa Rica, one article has been recently published where microforaminers and scolecodonts
were registered in Pliocene-Quaternary sediments (Zamora et al.
Frequency patterns of chitinozoans, scolecodonts
, and conodonts in the upper Llandovery and lower Wenlock of the Paatsalu core, western Estonia.
In addition, palynologic analysis reveals the presence of land spores, acritarchs, chitinozoans, and scolecodonts
Palynodebris Characteristics Amorphous organic matter Unstructured, irregularly-shaped, light brown to medium brown masses; usually gel- like (Figure 2A) Marine palynomorphs Scolecodonts
(chitinous mouth parts of marine annelid worms) and acritarchs (cysts of marine algal phytoplankton, Figure 2G) Black debris Opaque particles with sharp angular outlines; lath-shaped, sometimes more equidimensional (Figure 2E) Yellow-brown debris Structureless particles of yellow to light brown color; attributable to highly degraded herbaceous material (Figure 2A) Black-brown debris Unstructured dark brown to nearly black particles; attributable to highly degraded woody material Cuticles Platy epidermal fragments of leaves, roots, etc.