Scraper


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Scraper

 

a stone tool widely used in the Upper Paleolithic, the Mesolithic, and the Neolithic, but occurring also in the Lower Paleolithic and Bronze Age. A scraper was made from a single elongated stone flake, from part of the flake, or from a small flake. The most typical scraper was an end scraper, which had a convex or nearly straight working edge on its narrow end. In oval and rounded scrapers the working edge was continuous or almost continuous around the flake. Scrapers were used for scraping skins, wood, and bone, and often had handles made of wood, bone, or antler.


Scraper

 

an earth-excavating and transporting machine in which the working element is a scoop that slices off the earth layer by layer and transports and unloads the earth into a pile or spreads the earth out. Scrapers are used in construction work, mainly in leveling operations, and in the mining industry. They are classified according to the type of propulsion (motorized or tractor-drawn), the method of loading or unloading (gravity or mechanical), the parameters of the scoop, the type of drive, and other features.

When loading earth, the scraper moves forward with the scoop lowered. The earth is usually unloaded from the scoop while the machine is moving by spilling it out between the wheels; more rarely, the earth is dumped behind the scraper’s wheels. Scrapers can be used to clear layers of earth up to 0.5 m thick.

The scoop capacities of scrapers manufactured in the USSR range from 3 to 25 m3. Earth is transported over distances of 0.1 to 5 km. Newer scraper designs feature automatic control and scoops that are loaded by means of scraper elevators.

REFERENCES

Dombrovskii, N. G., and M. I. Gal’perin. Zemleroino-transportnye mashiny. Moscow, 1965.
See also references under EXCAVATING MACHINES.

L. A. SOKOLENKO


Scraper

 

a metal-cutting tool in the form of a metal rod with cutting edges on the end, used for scraping. Flat, three-sided, and shaped scrapers differ in the shape of the cutter; scrapers may be designed as one-piece tools, or they may have removable cutting plates. In addition to hand scrapers, pneumatic and electromechanical power scrapers are also used.

In the graphic arts, scrapers are used to remove the burr formed in engraving on metal and to smooth the grainy surface of the metal plate used in mezzotint engraving. They are also sometimes used by lithographers and sculptors.

scraper

pull-type scraper, 1
1. A self-propelled machine capable of digging, loading, hauling, dumping, and spreading materials; used to move earth by stripping or collecting a layer with a cutting blade while moving forward, pushing the earth into a bowl, and then unloading it.
2. A towed machine which is used to level the surface of ground by stripping away earth, or by collecting earth and filling hollow areas.
References in periodicals archive ?
He was the first to put rubber tires on scrapers in 1932, although he had to build his own tire molds before the reluctant tire companies would make the big, low-pressure tires he needed.
Each simulation started with an arbitrary oil distribution in a scraper ring step and on a third land.
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Place the scrapers where they won't be tripped over by people or animals, or run over by machinery.
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The hot ice scraper really is an absolute must for every motorist, It's robust and reliable and can be used by both left and right handed people.
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THIS week we are offering all Drivetime readers a free ice scraper on production of the voucher printed.
A toothbrush with a round head, it is designed to get into the crevices of the tongue, whereas a tongue scraper does not penetrate the tongue's uneven surface.
Examining changes in scraper reduction along with raw material selection and core reduction at Ingaladdi through time allows for identification of apparent major changes in land-use and mobility throughout the Holocene.