sea turtle


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sea turtle,

name for several species of large marine turtlesturtle,
a reptile of the order Chelonia, with strong, beaked, toothless jaws and, usually, an armorlike shell. The shell normally consists of bony plates overlaid with horny shields.
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 found in tropical and subtropical oceans. These turtles are modified for life in the ocean by having flipperlike forelimbs without toes and lightweight shells. Their heads are too large to be withdrawn into the shell. They spend most of their lives in the water, but come ashore to lay their eggs. Nearly all species have a circumglobal distribution although there are differences between the Atlantic and the Pacific populations. Most sea turtles are found in North American waters as far N as the U.S. S Atlantic coast and Baja California.

All sea turtle species are declining in numbers, owing in large part to the destruction of the eggs, which are widely used as food in tropical regions. Sea turtle meat is also eaten, and there is a market for turtle oil, hide, and shell. In a few places, such as Sarawak, harvesting of eggs is regulated by law to insure propagation of the species. The size of sea turtles has also decreased, owing to the hunting of large specimens.

The green turtle, Chelonia mydas, with greenish to brownish skin and shell, formerly reached weights of 1,000 lb (450 kg); the largest now found are about 4 ft (120 cm) long and weigh about 500 lb (225 kg). The green turtle feeds chiefly on marine vegetation and is most abundant in shallow water. The loggerhead, Caretta caretta, is a large-headed brown to reddish turtle. Chiefly carnivorous, it ranges from open oceans to coastal salt marshes and stream mouths. Like the green turtle it sometimes comes ashore in uninhabited places to bask.

The hawksbill, or tortoiseshell turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata, may reach 30 in. (75 cm) in length and weigh 100 lbs (45 kg). The horny plates of its shell are translucent and have a variegated color pattern, chiefly brown and yellow. These plates have long been valued for the making of ornamental objects. Although tortoiseshell has to a large extent been replaced in many applications by plastic, a renewed demand for the genuine material poses a serious threat to the hawksbill.

The ridleys, the smallest sea turtles, inhabit shallow offshore waters. The 2-ft (60-cm) long, gray Kemp's, or Atlantic, ridley, Lepidochelys kempii, breeds only in the Gulf of Mexico, although the young are often carried by the Gulf Stream to the Carribean Sea and Europe. The slightly larger, greenish olive, or Pacific, ridley (L. olivacea), also known as the oliveback, is found in the Indian and Pacific oceans. The leatherbackleatherback,
marine turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate waters around the world. The largest of all turtles, it may reach a length of 7 1-2 ft (230 cm) and weigh 1200 lb (540 kg).
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 is the largest of all turtles; it belongs to a separate family from the other sea turtles.

All sea turtles other than the leatherback are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Reptilia, order Chelonia, family Chelonidae; the leatherback belongs to the family Dermochelidae.

Bibliography

See J. R. Spotila, Saving Sea Turtles (2011).

sea turtle

[′sē ‚tərd·əl]
(vertebrate zoology)
Any of various marine turtles, principally of the families Cheloniidae and Dermochelidae, having paddle-shaped feet.
References in periodicals archive ?
The road to recovery for the green sea turtle has been long, and conservationists say it will be another 20-plus years before success can be truly declared.
This year, we worked with the Dubai Aquarium team who assisted us with the final stages of rehabilitation of five critically endangered hawksbill sea turtles.
After around two months the baby turtles hatch and make their way to the sea, but they are subjected to attacks by sea gulls, some foxes and dogs," Hamza said, adding that out of 1,000 baby sea turtles only five typically survive.
The students are asked to pretend to be a loggerhead sea turtle that is coming up on the beach to lay her eggs.
Since mid-November, more than 600 sea turtles have been rescued after washing up on the beach at the north end of Cape Cod, said aquarium spokesman Tony LaCasse.
Sea turtles usually feed on seaweed and other marine creatures such as jellyfish.
The Florida coast accounts for 90 percent of all sea turtle nest sites in the continental United States and is home to the largest nesting aggregation of threatened loggerhead turtles in the Western Hemisphere.
Green sea turtles or Chelonia mydas are a protected species and one of two sea turtles found in Cyprus, along with the loggerhead sea turtle or Caretta Caretta.
Regardless of its cause, the recent die-off is hardly something El Salvador's various sea turtle species can afford.
These efforts have made the Cabo San Lucas Bay and Los Cabos a safe and vitally important nesting area for the olive ridley sea turtle.
The project, financed by Ras Laffan Industrial City and other entities, included a study that lasted six years and was able to reveal several facts on the issue, answering a myriad of questions about the pattern of life of sea turtles.
ySTANBUL (CyHAN)- Endangered marine species loggerhead turtles, also known as Caretta Carettas and green sea turtles, have been coming ashore at Hatay coasts to lay eggs for the past two days, and volunteers have been flocking to the beaches to make sure that the maximum possible number of hatchlings make it back to sea.