Yan, "Collapse mechanism for deep tunnel subjected to seepage force in layered soils," Geomechanics and Engineering, vol.
According to Chen , the upper bound theorem with seepage forces effect can be written as follows:
stb;d] and on the other hand by comparison of the design values of the seepage force
The expression of the moment of seepage force obtains the following form
s] is an arm of seepage force, the approximate magnitude of which may be computed by the following formula
For example, the problem found in a China river cross mining table was related to the state of high soil-water seepage force
and stress and effective control of seepage force
can well balance to minimize construct risk in a statistical parameter scope.
Seepage reducing methods make use of relatively impermeable cutoffs, grout curtain and upstream blankets which consume energy at locations within cross sections where large water pressures and seepage forces
can have no detrimental effects.
Using jet erosion tests, our team has demonstrated that a soil's resistance to fluvial erosion decreases exponentially when influenced by groundwater seepage forces
Furthermore, the use of horizontal drains reduced the magnitude of the seepage flow velocities resulting in reduction of seepage forces
where friction and cohesion forces contain 60% and 40% of a numerator respectively, while tangential and seepage forces
have 66% and 34% of a denominator respectively in the expression of the slope stability coefficient.
He also discusses how to recognize surface and subsurface water elements that are significant to selecting methods for controlling flooding, erosion, subsurface flow, and seepage forces
and for environmental conservation.
Infiltration of water in the soft soil zone near the rock crevice increases the unit weight of the soil and induces seepage forces