These models will be used to study cancer evolution in order to decipher the impact of selection pressures
, such as DNA damaging agents and cancer cytotoxics, on genomic complexity and diversity in emergent resistant subclones.
that shape eggshell appearance may range from the obvious--such as crypsis and protection from UV-B radiation--to the unexpected, such as sexual selection, blackmail for parental care, defense against microbes, and more (Cassey et al.
The assay is designed to deliver both sensitivity and precision across a broad set of HIV-1 groups and subtypes; laboratories can now have confidence in assay performance, despite drug selection pressures
and growing genetic diversity.
that these events are the result of selection pressures
that have a single 'cause'.
In this study, we have analyzed the diversity of sequences among the sequences of C-prM, E-NS1 junctions as well as the NS1 protein of DEN-3 in the Indian subcontinent and established the presence of positive selection pressures
in the C-prM region.
Thus, chance observations of predation or related interactions are critical to identifying selection pressures
faced by prey species.
This means the weedy forms can draw on both ancestral genes and crop genes as they respond to the selection pressures
of modern agriculture.
To study differences in selection pressures
, we conducted likelihood ratio tests comparing a one-ratio model to a two-ratio alternative model.
that may have influenced the evolution of this behavior include reducing the time required to reach pupation sites.
She attributes the distribution differences to selection pressures
bacteria face in feedlot pens that aren't present in the oxygen-free, dark, moist cattle GI tract.
We next measured the selection pressures
acting on these lineages through the mean number of nonsynonymous (dN) to synonymous (dS) nucleotide substitutions per site using the single-likelihood ancestor counting, fixed effects likelihood, and random effects likelihood methods available in the Datamonkey HyPhy package as described (10).
The way we exploit our wild animals today will exert similar selection pressures
on the future game populations.