sewage treatment

Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

sewage treatment:

see septic tankseptic tank,
underground sedimentation tank in which sewage is retained for a short period while it is decomposed and purified by bacterial action. The organic matter in the sewage settles to the bottom of the tank, a film forms excluding atmospheric oxygen, and anaerobic
..... Click the link for more information.
; seweragesewerage,
system for the removal and disposal of chiefly liquid wastes and of rainwater, which are collectively called sewage. The average person in the industrialized world produces between 60 and 140 gallons of sewage per day.
..... Click the link for more information.

sewage treatment

[′sü·ij ‚trēt·mənt]
(civil engineering)
A process for the purification of mixtures of human and other domestic wastes; the process can be aerobic or anaerobic.

Sewage treatment

Unit processes used to separate, modify, remove, and destroy objectionable, hazardous, and pathogenic substances carried by wastewater in solution or suspension in order to render the water fit and safe for intended uses. Treatment removes unwanted constituents without affecting or altering the water molecules themselves, so that wastewater containing contaminants can be converted to safe drinking water. Stringent water quality and effluent standards have been developed that require reduction of suspended solids (turbidity), biochemical oxygen demand (related to degradable organics), and coliform organisms (indicators of fecal pollution); control of pH as well as the concentration of certain organic chemicals and heavy metals; and use of bioassays to guarantee safety of treated discharges to the environment.

In all cases, the impurities, contaminants, and solids removed from all wastewater treatment processes must ultimately be collected, handled, and disposed of safely, without damage to humans or the environment.

Treatment processes are chosen on the basis of composition, characteristics, and concentration of materials present in solution or suspension. The processes are classified as pretreatment, preliminary, primary, secondary, or tertiary treatment, depending on type, sequence, and method of removal of the harmful and unacceptable constituents. Pretreatment processes equalize flows and loadings, and precondition wastewaters to neutralize or remove toxics and industrial wastes that could adversely affect sewers or inhibit operations of publicly owned treatment works. Preliminary treatment processes protect plant mechanical equipment; remove extraneous matter such as grit, trash, and debris; reduce odors; and render incoming sewage more amenable to subsequent treatment and handling. Primary treatment employs mechanical and physical unit processes to separate and remove floatables and suspended solids and to prepare wastewater for biological treatment. Secondary treatment utilizes aerobic microorganisms in biological reactors to feed on dissolved and colloidal organic matter. As these microorganisms reduce biochemical oxygen demand and turbidity (suspended solids), they grow, multiply, and form an organic floc, which must be captured and removed in final settling tanks. Tertiary treatment, or advanced treatment, removes specific residual substances, trace organic materials, nutrients, and other constituents that are not removed by biological processes. Most advanced wastewater treatment systems include denitrification and ammonia stripping, carbon adsorption of trace organics, and chemical precipitation. Evaporation, distillation, electrodialysis, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, freeze drying, freeze-thaw, floatation, and land application, with particular emphasis on the increased use of natural and constructed wetlands, are being studied and utilized as methods for advanced wastewater treatment to improve the quality of the treated discharge to reduce unwanted effects on the receiving environment. See Absorption, Sewage, Sewage disposal

On-site sewage treatment for individual homes or small institutions uses septic tanks, which provide separation of solids in a closed, buried unit. Effluent is discharged to subsurface absorption systems. See Septic tank, Unit processes, Water treatment

sewage treatment

Any artificial process to which sewage is subjected in order to remove or alter its objectionable constituents and to render it less dangerous from the standpoint of public health.
References in periodicals archive ?
com/research/pnln85/china_sewage) has announced the addition of the "China Sewage Treatment Industry Report, 2012" report to their offering.
Before growing season, sludge-laden truck from the nearby sewage treatment plant stops by and "injects" the gunk into Bradley's soil.
The current sewage treatment works, 50 years old and covering 6,000 square metres, will be replaced by a compact plant, partially underground and covering 1,500 square metres.
Connecticut gives sewage treatment plants a chance to take part in an innovative plan called nitrogen trading.
The catch with ozone treatment is that it forms bromate, which is a regulated disinfection by-product; with chlorination, the catch is that chlorine combines with ammonia in the sewage treatment system to form chloramines, which are not strong oxidants and so cannot break down compounds such as estrogens.
Leeds-born Nell has already recorded the script to the world's first virtual sewage treatment works tour which is based at the company's Esholt sewage treatment works on the outskirts of Bradford.
Estrogen removal is a fortunate side effect of multiple-tank sewage treatment, says chemist Thomas Heberer of the Technical University of Berlin.
In addition to the benefits of irrigation, the SIL Cleanwater Project is expected to eliminate nuisance odors usually associated with wastewater treatment, greatly reduce sludge generation, and offer lower operating costs than the conventional sewage treatment plants.
At the same time, Catskill communities began talks with the City about sewage treatment upgrades, septic system overhauls, and other infrastructure improvements to reduce their portion of watershed pollution.
RF: It was the first art exhibition in a museum where officials from the city administration demonstrated the quality of their sewage treatment.
Situated in Tongzi County, Zunyi City, Guizhou Province, the bundled project of 13 sewage treatment plants in Tongzi County comprises of No.
com/research/6ddxvq/global_and) has announced the addition of the "Global and Chinese Sewage Treatment Industry Report 2013" report to their offering.