shale

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shale,

sedimentary rockrock,
aggregation of solid matter composed of one or more of the minerals forming the earth's crust. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology. Rocks are commonly divided, according to their origin, into three major classes—igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
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 formed by the consolidation of mud or clay, having the property of splitting into thin layers parallel to its bedding planes. Shale tends to be fissile, i.e., it tends to split along planar surfaces between the layers of stratified rock. Shales comprise an estimated 55% of all sedimentary rocks. The composition of shale varies widely. Shales with very high silica content may have been formed when large quantities of diatomsdiatom
, unicellular organism of the kingdom Protista, characterized by a silica shell of often intricate and beautiful sculpturing. Most diatoms exist singly, although some join to form colonies.
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 and volcanic ash were present in the original sediment. Large numbers of fossilsfossil,
remains or imprints of plants or animals preserved from prehistoric times by the operation of natural conditions. Fossils are found in sedimentary rock, asphalt deposits, and coal and sometimes in amber and certain other materials.
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 in shales may give them a high calcium content; such shales may grade into limestoneslimestone,
sedimentary rock wholly or in large part composed of calcium carbonate. It is ordinarily white but may be colored by impurities, iron oxide making it brown, yellow, or red and carbon making it blue, black, or gray. The texture varies from coarse to fine.
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. Shales that contain a large percentage of aluminaalumina
or aluminum oxide,
Al2O3, chemical compound with m.p. about 2,000°C; and sp. gr. about 4.0. It is insoluble in water and organic liquids and very slightly soluble in strong acids and alkalies. Alumina occurs in two crystalline forms.
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 are used as a source of that mineral in the manufacture of cementcement,
binding material used in construction and engineering, often called hydraulic cement, typically made by heating a mixture of limestone and clay until it almost fuses and then grinding it to a fine powder.
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, and those that contain natural gas and petroleum have become a significant energy resource in the 21st cent. due to the use of hydraulic fracturing techniques in drilling. Shales containing abundant carbonaceous matter grade into bituminous coalcoal,
fuel substance of plant origin, largely or almost entirely composed of carbon with varying amounts of mineral matter. Types

There is a complete series of carbonaceous fuels, which differ from each other in the relative amounts of moisture, volatile matter,
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.

shale

[shāl]
(petrology)
A fine-grained laminated or fissile sedimentary rock made up of silt- or clay-size particles; generally consists of about one-third quartz, one-third clay materials, and one-third miscellaneous minerals, including carbonates, iron oxides, feldspars, and organic matter.

shale

Argillaceous sedimentary rock derived from clays or silts; typically thinly laminated and weak along planes; may be undesirable as a concrete aggregate.

shale

a dark fine-grained laminated sedimentary rock formed by compression of successive layers of clay-rich sediment
References in periodicals archive ?
The occurrence of millerite on the West High Cross vein and the High Cross vein is unusual in that it is stratigraphicatly restricted (to the shaley sandstones just below the Great Limestone).
In the study area Roberts Creek flows along the contact of shaley Ordovician carbonates (Elgin Member, Maquoketa Formation) with underlying thinly bedded limestones of the upper Galena Group (Dubuque Member of Ordovician age; Hallberg et al.
prinus saplings, each 4 yr old, were planted alternately in an 8 x 10 grid on Berks shaley silt loam (Braker 1981) at a farm in Center County, Pennsylvania.
Amir N, Hurvitzh H, Korn-Lubetzki I, Shaley RS, Gower's sign in discitis in childhood.
The scrap of a much older fault, such as one from the Pennsylvanian period, would have been considerably more worn and would have been obliterated in the shaley soils.
Today, thanks to new horizontal drilling techniques and multi-stage fracturing technologies adapted from North Dakota's Bakken, prolific light-oil wells are being made in the shaley, tight-sand Cardium formation.
Tenders are invited for San 2016-17 varshakarita jilha krida karyala amravati yethil rajyastar shaley basketball spardhekarita kheladunchi nivas v bhojan vyavastha karne
THE Council has made the following decisions: Conditional permission: | D Bradley, alterations and building of extension to roof height to create house forming annex accommodation associated with Shaley Dene, Fearnley Lane, Holmfirth.
Based in St Helens, McEvoy often takes his daily, four-hour training rides on the lanes of Lancashire, regularly building in fast-paced, intensive sessions on Billinge's Shaley Brow, which, at one-in-seven, is one of the steepest climbs in the area.
7), a single, ribbed ovule with three identifiable coalified layers that are separated from each other by very thin shaley layers.
They are characterized as moderately deep and deep, strongly sloping and steep, well-drained silty clay loams and shaley clay loams.
The millerite-bearing portion of the outcrop is characterized by alternating layers of siltstone of two lithologies: shaley and massive.