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the religious law of Islam. As Islam makes no distinction between religion and life, Islamic law covers not only ritual but many aspects of life. The actual codification of canonic law is the result of the concurrent evolution of jurisprudence proper and the so-called science of the roots of jurisprudence (usul al-fiqh). A general agreement was reached, in the course of the formalization of Islam, as to the authority of four such roots: the Qur'an in its legislative segments; the example of the Prophet Muhammad as related in the hadith; the consensus of the Muslims (ijma), premised on a saying by Muhammad stipulating "My nation cannot agree on an error"; and reasoning by analogy (qiyas). Another important principle is ijtihad, the extension of sharia to situations neither covered by precedent nor explicable by analogy to other laws. These roots provide the means for the establishment of prescriptive codes of action and for the evaluation of individual and social behavior. The basic scheme for all actions is a fivefold division into obligatory, meritorious, permissible, reprehensible, and forbidden.

Numerous schools of jurisprudence emerged in the course of Islamic history. Four coexist today within Sunni Islam, with one or more dominant in particular areas—Maliki (N and W Africa), Hanafi (Turkic Asia), Shafii (Egypt, E Africa, SE Asia), and Hanbali (Saudi Arabia; see Ibn Hanbal, AhmadIbn Hanbal, Ahmad
, 780–855, Muslim jurist and theologian. His disciples founded the fourth of the four major Sunni schools of jurisprudence, the Hanbali. Ibn Hanbal's conception of law was principally influenced by hadith which led him to reject the officially sanctioned
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). While these schools of jurisprudence vary on certain rituals and practices, they are often perceived as complementary rather than mutually exclusive. Twelve-Imam Shiite jurisprudence is often referred to as Jafari. Islamic law is an important legal influence, to a greater or lesser degree, in nearly all nations with a Muslim majority population; the primary exception is Turkey, which has been a secular state since AtatürkAtatürk, Kemal
, 1881–1938, Turkish leader, founder of modern Turkey. He took the name in 1934 in place of his earlier name, Mustafa Kemal, when he ordered all Turks to adopt a surname; it is made up of the Turkish words Ata and Türk [father of the Turks].
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See study by S. Kadri (2012).



a city (since 1938) under oblast jurisdiction and the administrative center of Shar’ia Raion, Kostroma Oblast, RSFSR. Situated on the left bank of the Vetluga River. Railroad junction. Population, 26,000 (1974). Industry is represented by the Shar’iadrev Production Association, an experimental machine shop, a milk plant, a garment factory, a furniture factory, and a plant that manufactures reinforced-concrete structural members. There are also two logging and timber distribution establishments. Educational institutions include a pedagogical school, a medical school, and a sovkhoz technicum. The city has a museum of local lore and a people’s amateur theater.



(literally, “correct path,” “correct way of behaving”), the body of Islamic religious, ethical, and legal precepts, based on the Koran, sunna (sacred tradition), and fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).

The sharia was developed in the Arabian Caliphate between the seventh and 12th centuries. In addition to precepts on the fundamental religious obligations of Muslims, it includes the norms of Islamic state, civil, criminal, and procedural law. The sharia is in force in countries where Islam is the state religion, and it is applied especially in the spheres of marriage, the family, and inheritance.

After the October Revolution of 1917, the Soviet government at first restricted the jurisdiction of the sharia and later eliminated sharia courts; those norms of the sharia that conflicted with Soviet laws were made inoperative. The norms of the sharia have no legal force in the USSR, and the precepts of the sharia are preserved only in the rituals and way of life of some Muslims.

In most foreign countries where the population professes Islam, the norms of the sharia have been incorporated into secular law. The sharia continues to be regarded as the source of Islamic law and one of the foundations of Muslim ideology.


, sheria
the body of doctrines that regulate the lives of those who profess Islam
References in periodicals archive ?
In order to bring harmonization, standardization and transparency in the practices of these Shariah compliant businesses, the SECP's Islamic Finance Department (IFD) reviewed Shariah governance frameworks and Islamic finance provisions of several international jurisdictions.
While the four Shariah Standards of AAOIFI: Shariah Standard No 3- Default in Payment by a Debtor, Shariah Standard No 8-Murabahah to the Purchase Orderer, Shariah Standard No 9- Ijarah and Ijarah Muntahia Bittamleek; and Shariah Standard No13- Mudarabah, were notified in January 2016.
While the four Shariah Standards of AAOIFI, Shariah Standard No 3 pertaining to default in payment by a debtor, Shariah Standard No 8 pertaining to murabahah to the purchase orderer, Shariah Standard No 9 pertaining to ijarah and Shariah Standard No 13 pertaining to mudarabah, were notified in January 2016.
In this regard, eight consultation sessions with relevant organizations and stakeholders have been held, including SBP, PSX, Modaraba and NBFI Association, Shariah scholars, MUFAP and takaful operators.
While it also notified the four Shariah Standards of AAOIFI; Shariah Standard No 3- Default in Payment by a Debtor, Shariah Standard No 8-Murabahah to the Purchase Order, Shariah Standard No 9- Ijarah and Ijarah Muntahia Bittamleek; and Shariah Standard No.
He said the recently emerged militant group Ansarul Shariah Pakistan (ASP) has lost its competence in carrying out a terror plot in the city after the last night encounter.
While country Shariah boards will promote standardisation at a local level, there may still be disagreement beyond borders.
Accordingly, the Shariah Board in its 45th meeting, held in Kingdom of Bahrain for 4 days from 28 Thu ElHujja 1437 corresponding to 29 September 2016 to 1 Muharram 1438 corresponding to 2 October 2016, issued a number of key resolutions including the adoption of the standards exposure draft: (Gold and its Trading Controls), and requested AAOIFI General Secretariat to make the exposure draft available to the public for one month to gather feeback and suggestions thereon.
Required that each operator would appoint a Shariah advisor who would ensure adherence of condition specified by the commission upon advice of the Shariah Advisory Board on all matters Company's Shariah Board had also prescribed the Shariah Guidelines regarding Co-Takaful arrangement with the conventional insurers Company had violated the Shariah Guidelines relating to Co-Takaful arrangement with the conventional insurers Default of the company of the shariah Guidelines issued by Shariah Supervisory Board of the general takaful operators was established Company should at all times comply with the principles of Shariah, which was the most integral part of the Takaful business, but company failed to do that Penalty as provided under S.
The Shariah Compliance certificate for the investment product was issued by Sheikh Mufti Muhammad Ibrahim Essa who is an eminent Shariah Advisor having worked with many institutions on several projects in different parts of the world, including US, UK, Japan, and Australia.
The new Fund is an open-ended fund which will be invested in Shariah Compliant instruments, ideally to cater the requirements of those investors who wish to earn Riba Free Halal Income while seeking maximum possible preservation of their capital.