shoulder effect

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coastal refraction

coastal refractionclick for a larger image
Aircraft at A will get erroneous reading while that at B will have no error. Alternatively, A should utilize a beacon located near coast line.
One of the errors in a direction finder resulting from the change in the direction of travel of a radio ground wave as it passes from one medium to another (i.e., from land to sea or from sea to land). Also called land effect, shoreline effect, and shoulder effect. This effect can be minimized by use of coastal beacons, in which the radio beam will leave the coast at 90°, resulting in nil refraction.
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8 percent, which does indicate a strong shoulder effect.
Finally, two sets of specimens were constructed with a notch cut on the underside of the rail in order to minimize shoulder effects.
Presumably, the bending moment capacities of the joints without cross-pins can be estimated by means of a modified form of the flexure formula that includes a form factor for round tenons and a shoulder effect factor.