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the lowest of the four ancient Indian varnas.

The Sudra varna, which became established during the formation of a class society in India, was made up of conquered tribes and of outsiders who were admitted into the community; the latter included persons who had become separated from their own tribes and persons whose tribes had broken up. In the ancient Indian slaveholding society, the Sudras were servants, artisans, and dependent and subordinate workers. In confirmation of their lowly status, they were forbidden to undergo the initiatory rite (”second birth”) that would entitle them to full civil rights; as a result, the Sudras, unlike the three higher varnas, were “once born.”

The Sudras were subject to many social restrictions: they were forbidden to own land, hold priestly or governmental office, or take part in politics or religious ceremonies. Their unequal status was reflected in various practices; for example, if convicted of a crime, Sudras were punished more severely than members of the higher varnas would be in similar circumstances, and money could be lent to them at unusually high rates of interest.

In the first centuries of the Common Era, the Sudras achieved higher status, and many restrictions disappeared; their social position came to resemble that of the Vaisyas. In various parts of India, castes were classified as Sudra regardless of their actual status, and the term lost a fixed meaning for India as a whole.


References in periodicals archive ?
Japan led 2-0 at the first interval but GB came out hard in period two as Cole Shudra and Jordan Buesa went close on the same shift.
De la particion del purusha surge la division social de la siguiente manera: de la cabeza (de su boca) los brahmanes o sacerdotes, del pecho: los ksatriyas o guerreros, de sus muslos: los vaishyas, de los pies los shudras o pueblos conquistados.
In case a Brahman man marries Shudra woman, their son will be called 'Parshav' or 'Shudra' because his social existence is like a dead body.
5); if a shudra hurls abusive words at a virtuous arya, his tongue shall be cut out (A2, 27.
198) observes, "The author of the Arthashastra emerges as something of a champion of the shudras, espousing their rights as freeborn citizens, and going so far as to suggest that the sons of slaves should enjoy the status of Aryans.
Then, in a dramatic penalty shoot-out, Sheffield scored three of their four penalties - Mike Peron, Mark Dutiaume and finally Shudra - but Cardiff managed only one from Nathan Rempel.
GB levelled only 16 seconds later when Garrigan fired low into the left-hand corner of the net (43:35) and took the lead at 52:16 on the powerplay as Shudra slipped the puck past Ors Adorjan.
Veteran Steelers defenceman Ron Shudra pulled a goal back for the home side but Fleury was to play his part in the scoring.
Former Blaze player Ron Shudra struck the sudden death winner, his blue line shot sneaking past Jody Lehman, giving Steelers a 3-2 win.
Michael Tasker, Shaun Johnson, Hilton Ruggles, Ron Shudra, Gareth Owen and Kurt Irvine are among those who shaped the Blaze and guided them to their first successes - the British National League and play-off double in 2002-3.
Brebant joins the likes of Ron Shudra, Tim Cranston, Tommy Plommer, Jason Lafreniere, Mike Blaisdell, Denis Vial, Mike Peron, Wayne Cowley and Tony Hand in the Sheffield legends team.
Sheffield finally made the breakthrough in the final session, Ron Shudra shooting past Trevor Koenig at 45.