They form as a gas from burning candles and exist as solids in certain types of rock, such as the mineral shungite
found in Russia, and fulgurite, a glassy rock from Colorado that forms when lightning strikes the ground.
Fine Shungite powders--advanced fillers of polyfunctional action for elastomer composites," B.
Prospective use of Shungite filler in rubber and polymer composition," A.
is a highly carbonaceous metasedimentary rock similar in appearance to meta-anthracite and to solid bitumen.
Buseck and his collegues at Arizona State University in Tempe identified the first naturally occurring fullerenes in a rock from Russia called shungite (SN: 7/11/92, p.
So far, the Sheep Mountain fulgurite and the shungite - a coal-like sedimentary material - appear to have very different histories.
Buseck at Arizona State University in Tempe, has found 60-and 70-carbon fullerenes in the film that lines tiny cracks of a shiny black rock called shungite.
Using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Tsipursky first noted that some shungite images contained the same array of white circles and black centers that characterized micrographs of synthetic fullerene samples.
He also looked at a variety of other kinds of carbon-containing materials under the same conditions and found no fullerenes in any except the shungite.
On shungite, fullerenes may have formed as a solid layer.