signaling


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signaling,

transmission of information by visible, audible, or other detectable means. Since prehistoric times humans have sought and employed ever more effective means of communicating over distance. Signal fires on mountain tops announced awaited events. In Africa a sophisticated system of drum beating was used, where the tone and the rhythm determined the meaning. Some Native Americans used smoke signals to send messages. In the American Revolution the colonists used combinations of three articles for signaling—a barrel, a basket, and a flag placed in different positions atop a post. In the early days of railroading, men were posted at places where accidents might occur, e.g., at stations and tunnels, and signaled to the engineer by flag or lamp. Modern railroad signaling depends upon electrically operated indicators which constitute a semaphoresemaphore
, device for the visible transmission of messages. The marine semaphore, used by day between ships or between a ship and the shore, consists essentially of a post at the top of which are two pivoted arms. The arms are connected by light gearing to two operating levers.
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 system. The position of a movable arm swinging from a pivot indicates whether the train can go forward or must wait and whether it should go rapidly or slowly. Most electric trains, including subways, are fitted with automatic devices that turn the power off and the brakes on if the engineer ignores a stop signal. Railroads also use light signals to duplicate the positions of a semaphore arm. In marine signaling, flags have been used for hundreds of years. The International Code of Signals was compiled by the British government in 1857 and, by international agreement, was amended to the present system in 1901. It utilizes a number of flags of various colors and forms; each flag represents a certain letter or number, and the flags are hoisted to convey a message to another vessel or to the shore. Blinker lights are much used by naval units. At night flash lamps using Morse codeMorse code
[for S. F. B. Morse], the arbitrary set of signals used on the telegraph (see code). It may also be used with a flash lamp for visible signaling. The international (or continental) Morse code is a simplified form generally used in radio telegraphy.
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 or another code may be used for signaling. Fog signals are commonly used by vessels and lighthouses when visibility conditions make visual warnings ineffective. While radio and telephone apparatus have largely superseded many of these devices, they are still used as backup systems of communication. In modern times aerial and marine craft are commonly given directional data through radio beacon signals or from orbiting satellites to get a fix on their position. In the home, signaling takes on numerous forms from the simple doorbell to intercom systems. Some intercom systems use dedicated wires, and others the power lines by means of carrier-current signaling. Various remote-control devices use signaling: infrared signals, sent in coded pulses, are used to control the function of audio and video entertainment devices. See information theoryinformation theory
or communication theory,
mathematical theory formulated principally by the American scientist Claude E. Shannon to explain aspects and problems of information and communication.
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; codecode,
in communications, set of symbols and rules for their manipulation by which the symbols can be made to carry information. By this extended definition all written and spoken languages are codes.
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signaling

Sending control signals that start and stop a transmission or other operation. The signals are the commands that request an operation to be performed. For example, in telephony, a control signal is sent to establish a call, and later one is sent to tear down (disconnect) the call. See call control, signaling in/out of band and signal.
References in periodicals archive ?
Introducing Sigtran (SS7oIP) into the signaling network is the "stepping stone" for migrating to session initiation protocol (SIP) signaling in an IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) architecture.
Operators now can scale their EAGLE 5 ISS to handle the increasing signaling traffic caused by migration to 3G.
3V signaling to balance high-to-low and low-to-high transition times.
Session Controller (SC) provides signaling control and security for voice, video and multimedia SIP message flows.
The iNAV 9400 Signaling Gateway is a carrier grade, cost-effective SS7 signaling solution that can be effectively scaled to meet increasing traffic demand.
About Tekelec EAGLE 5 Signaling Applications System (SAS)
Security - SBC prevents DoS attacks on core IMS elements by dynamically discovering and blocking malicious signaling and media attacks or non-malicious overloads (e.
With Tekelec's EAGLE SAS platforms, the consortium will gain greater control of its signaling network and expand capacity to offer signaling capabilities to additional IOCs in these states.
In addition, Acme Packet announced three new enhanced security features - enhanced SBC DoS self-protection against signaling attacks, a hardware acceleration module for TLS and IPSec, and SIP privacy support - to the existing set of Net-SAFE features in Acme Packet's Net-Net(R) products.
TNS, a provider of call signaling and database access services to the U.
BOSTON -- Adax has announced a significant new High Availability addition to its family of signaling gateway products.