signaling


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signaling,

transmission of information by visible, audible, or other detectable means. Since prehistoric times humans have sought and employed ever more effective means of communicating over distance. Signal fires on mountain tops announced awaited events. In Africa a sophisticated system of drum beating was used, where the tone and the rhythm determined the meaning. Some Native Americans used smoke signals to send messages. In the American Revolution the colonists used combinations of three articles for signaling—a barrel, a basket, and a flag placed in different positions atop a post. In the early days of railroading, men were posted at places where accidents might occur, e.g., at stations and tunnels, and signaled to the engineer by flag or lamp. Modern railroad signaling depends upon electrically operated indicators which constitute a semaphoresemaphore
, device for the visible transmission of messages. The marine semaphore, used by day between ships or between a ship and the shore, consists essentially of a post at the top of which are two pivoted arms. The arms are connected by light gearing to two operating levers.
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 system. The position of a movable arm swinging from a pivot indicates whether the train can go forward or must wait and whether it should go rapidly or slowly. Most electric trains, including subways, are fitted with automatic devices that turn the power off and the brakes on if the engineer ignores a stop signal. Railroads also use light signals to duplicate the positions of a semaphore arm. In marine signaling, flags have been used for hundreds of years. The International Code of Signals was compiled by the British government in 1857 and, by international agreement, was amended to the present system in 1901. It utilizes a number of flags of various colors and forms; each flag represents a certain letter or number, and the flags are hoisted to convey a message to another vessel or to the shore. Blinker lights are much used by naval units. At night flash lamps using Morse codeMorse code
[for S. F. B. Morse], the arbitrary set of signals used on the telegraph (see code). It may also be used with a flash lamp for visible signaling. The international (or continental) Morse code is a simplified form generally used in radio telegraphy.
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 or another code may be used for signaling. Fog signals are commonly used by vessels and lighthouses when visibility conditions make visual warnings ineffective. While radio and telephone apparatus have largely superseded many of these devices, they are still used as backup systems of communication. In modern times aerial and marine craft are commonly given directional data through radio beacon signals or from orbiting satellites to get a fix on their position. In the home, signaling takes on numerous forms from the simple doorbell to intercom systems. Some intercom systems use dedicated wires, and others the power lines by means of carrier-current signaling. Various remote-control devices use signaling: infrared signals, sent in coded pulses, are used to control the function of audio and video entertainment devices. See information theoryinformation theory
or communication theory,
mathematical theory formulated principally by the American scientist Claude E. Shannon to explain aspects and problems of information and communication.
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; codecode,
in communications, set of symbols and rules for their manipulation by which the symbols can be made to carry information. By this extended definition all written and spoken languages are codes.
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signaling

Sending control signals that start and stop a transmission or other operation. The signals are the commands that request an operation to be performed. For example, in telephony, a control signal is sent to establish a call, and later one is sent to tear down (disconnect) the call. See call control, signaling in/out of band and signal.
References in periodicals archive ?
About Tekelec EAGLE 5 Integrated Signaling System (ISS)
The noise rejection capabilities of differential pairs allow for low voltage signaling.
Signaling Firewall (SF) provides security for core SIP signaling elements such as softswitches, IMS CSCF elements and application servers.
The unique distributed architecture of the iNAV 9400 allows parallel processing of SS7 and SIGTRAN signaling traffic via all SS7 links and IP interfaces available on the system and provides scalability limited only by hardware capacity.
It provides security for the IMS core in terms of signaling information by implementing a Topology-Hiding Inter-network Gateway (THIG) sub-function.
Tekelec's EAGLE 5 SAS is a high-capacity multi-protocol advanced signaling system.
VPN separation: Support for Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) with full inter-VPN topology hiding and separation, ability to create separate signaling and media-only VPNs, and with optional intra-VPN media hair-pinning to monitor calls within a VPN.
Tekelec was able to meet our need for critical signaling functions," said Steve Nocella, vice president of Network Operations at XO Communications.
With the announcement of the SG-HA we have now added STP functionality to our range of Signaling Gateways," said Barry Zuckerman, President of Adax Inc.
By mounting one or two Adax PMC modules onto the SBC-915X, the single slot solution can be configured as a cost-effective compactPCI signaling blade for SS7, ATM, SIGTRAN or SS7/IP signaling.
In addition to the signaling gateways, Adax SIGTRAN software for M2PA, M3UA and SCTP/T are available separately for customers who need to IP enable other SS7 nodes in the network for connection to the Adax signaling gateways.
These leading-edge signaling gateway products enable customers to deploy IP and ATM-enabled switches, STPs and databases over traditional SS7 networks.