silkworm


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silkworm,

name for the larvalarva,
independent, immature animal that undergoes a profound change, or metamorphosis, to assume the typical adult form. Larvae occur in almost all of the animal phyla; because most are tiny or microscopic, they are rarely seen. They play diverse roles in the lives of animals.
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 of various species of moths, indigenous to Asia and Africa but now domesticated and raised for silksilk,
fine, horny, translucent, yellowish fiber produced by the silkworm in making its cocoon and covered with sericin, a protein. Many varieties of silk-spinning worms and insects are known, but the silkworm of commerce is the larva of the Bombyx mori,
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 production throughout most of the temperate zone. The culture of silkworms is called sericulture. The various species of silkworms raised today are distinguished by the quality of the silk they produce, the type of leaves on which they feed, and the number of breedings per year. The most widely raised type and the producer of the finest silk is the larva of Bombyx mori, of Asian origin. After centuries of domestication, Bombyx mori is no longer found anywhere in a natural state. The legs of the larvae have degenerated, and the adults do not fly. Hatched from eggs so small that about 35,000 of them weigh only an ounce, these silkworms are immediately quite active and feed voraciously on mulberry leaves. At the end of the larval stage (32 to 38 days after hatching) they are about 3 in. (7.5 cm) long. A mature larva attaches itself to a twig and, with a weaving motion of its head and a slow, circular motion of its body, begins to spin its cocoon (see pupapupa
, name for the third stage in the life of an insect that undergoes complete metamorphosis, i.e., develops from the egg through the larva and the pupa stages to the adult.
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). A moist substance, fibroin, is manufactured in two silk glands located on the underside of the larva's body; mixed with a small amount of wax, it is emitted from an orifice called the spinneret, in the lip of the larva. The fibroin dries quickly in the air, hardening into a half-mile-long thread of silk that makes up the cocoon. The adult moth, with a wingspread of 1.75 in. (4.5 cm), emerges from the cocoon in about two weeks. The moths mate and lay their eggs (several hundred from each female) within a week; the eggs hatch in about ten days. Only enough cocoons to ensure adequate reproduction are allowed to hatch; the rest are unwound after developing for a week, and the silk is processed. The giant silkworms used in some Asian and South American sericulture are the larvae of the closely related saturnid moths (family Saturniidae). They include the tussah moth (Antherala pernyi), the producer of tussah silk. The ailanthus moth (Samia walkeri), a large, olive-green saturnid moth used in China to produce a coarse grade of silk, was imported to the United States along with its food plant, the Chinese ailanthus tree, as the basis of an industry that never materialized; the moth has been firmly established in the New York City area since 1861. Diseases of silkworms have occasioned important scientific work. When Pasteur saved the French silk industry from destruction by pébrine, a protozoan disease of insects, in the mid-18th cent., he also made an important contribution to the germ theory of disease. The common silkworm, Bombyx mori, is classified in the phylum ArthropodaArthropoda
[Gr.,=jointed feet], largest and most diverse animal phylum. The arthropods include crustaceans, insects, centipedes, millipedes, spiders, scorpions, and the extinct trilobites.
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, class Insecta, order Lepidoptera, family Bombycidae.

silkworm

[′silk‚wərm]
(invertebrate zoology)
The larva of various moths, especially Bombyx mori, that produces a large amount of silk for building its cocoon.

silkworm

1. the larva of the Chinese moth Bombyx mori, that feeds on the leaves of the mulberry tree: widely cultivated as a source of silk
2. any of various similar or related larvae
3. silkworm moth the moth of any of these larvae
References in periodicals archive ?
Silkworms have been genetically engineered to spin silk containing spider silk proteins by researchers from the University of Wyoming, Laramie; Notre Dame University, South Bend, Ind.
This is slated as one of the prestigious milestones that enables NSSO to gallop to the next level of silkworm seed production and distribution in the country.
Expansion of silkworm mulberry plantations, strengthening of feeding base, attraction of qualified professionals allowed to achieve the high rates.
The stronger fiber could find application in sutures, where some natural silkworm silk is used, as well as wound dressings, artificial ligaments, tendons, tissue scaffolds, microcapsules, cosmetics and textiles.
Generally accepted importance of silkworm larval feeding and mulberry leaves quality on increase of performance in sericulture [4,7,9,21].
He added that the number of silkworm eggs' boxes doubled in 2010 in comparison with 2009, expecting that the number of breeders will considerably increase due to the support provided to them by the Ministry of Agriculture.
These increase or decrease was higher in the mixture of 50% silkworm litter + 50% percent leaf litter (1:1).
The reduction in efficiency is proportional to increasing percentage of silkworm pupa oil in the blends.
In addition to the silkworm information, which was not only interesting but made for compelling reading (really), Linda Sue Park raises other, broad issues: racism and prejudice, the mercurial nature of friendship and sibling relationships; commitment; cultural pride; conservation.
Designed to meet the most demanding requirements in enterprise data centers, the SilkWorm 48000 is the industry's first 4 Gbit/ sec SAN director.
As needs evolve, we will be able to scale up these directors to the new Brocade SilkWorm 24000 Directors.
David Kaplan and Hyoung-Joon Jin took natural silk from a silkworm, extracted the silk proteins known as fibroins, and dissolved them in water.